03 February, 2009
Leon Max Lederman is an American experimental physicist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his work with neutrinos. He is Director Emeritus of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. He founded the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, in Aurora, Illinois in 1986, and has served in the capacity of Resident Scholar since 1998.
Lederman graduated from the James Monroe High School in the South Bronx. He received his bachelor's degree from the City College of New York in 1943, and received a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1951. He then joined the Columbia faculty and eventually became Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics. He took an extended leave of absence from Columbia in 1979 to become Fermilab's director. He resigned from Columbia and Fermilab in 1989 and taught briefly at the University of Chicago before moving to the Illinois Institute of Technology, where he currently serves as the Pritzker Professor of Science. In 1991, Lederman became President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Lederman is also one of the main proponents of the "Physics First" movement. Also known as "Right-side Up Science" and "Biology Last," this movement seeks to rearrange the current high school science curriculum so that physics precedes chemistry and biology.
A former president of the American Physical Society, Lederman also received the National Medal of Science, the Wolf Prize and the Ernest O. Lawrence Medal. Lederman serves as President of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. He was called a "modern day Leonardo Da Vinci" by the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry.
Among his achievements are the discovery of the muon neutrino in 1962 and the bottom quark in 1977. These helped establish his reputation as among the top particle physicists.
In 1988, Lederman received the Nobel Prize for Physics along with Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger for "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino". Among the Nobel Prize and other honors, Lederman received the National Medal of Science (1965), the Cresson Medal for Physics (1976), the Wolf Prize for Physics (1982) and the Enrico Fermi Award (1993).
Fred Katz is an American composer, songwriter, conductor, cellist, and professor.
Always an enigma, even to his friends, musical peers and colleagues, Fred Katz at 89 years old, continues to confound the music business into the 21st Century with his capacity to innovate and his seemingly unique ability to take his music to even wider audiences, over 50 years since he crossed that imaginary line between the ‘straight’ player and the jazzman.
The man, whose work with the Chico Hamilton Quintet in the 1950’s brought him particular attention, as did his writing and appearance in the award winning Tony Curtis and Burt Lancaster movie, ‘Sweet Smell of Success’, is still composing for a generation of musicians far removed from the early days of modern jazz.
Being persuaded out of a happy retirement in Orange County, California, by Book of Dreams Music’s chief executive Harry Paton Evans, the eloquent and sometimes mystic Mr. Katz accepted the challenge to write some new jazz and classical material for an emerging generation of talented musicians, at present working their way through music academies and colleges.
Born in Brooklyn, New York on 25 February 1919, Fred Katz quickly became recognised as a child prodigy on both piano and cello. He played classical cello with the National Symphony of Washington following an eight year scholarship with the National Orchestral Society at New York’s illustrious Carnegie Hall under the direction of conductor Leon Barzin.
His war years were served in various capacities. He led the 7th Army headquarters’ band as musical director and was twice invited as President and Mrs. Roosevelt’s White House guest on a number of occasions where he conducted the Federal Employees Chorus in various performances for national radio broadcasts. He was also involved in writing for the Treasury Bond Wagon Shows, aimed at raising much needed financial resource for the war effort.
Initially suspected, in the Los Angeles music scene of the early 1950’s, as an oddball from the ‘classical’ camp, Fred Katz is now widely considered to be the first of the traditionally trained musicians to see the possibilities of using the cello to bridge the traditional restrictions of classical training with the potential of improvisation, to develop new potentials in what was then a new form of the jazz that Parker and Gillespie had branded ‘modern’.
Further approbation came through his years as an A&R man with Decca Records and his, often lauded, work as musical director, arranger and often composer with such musical luminaries as Lena Horne, Carmen McRae, Vic Damone and Tony Bennett led to some classic recordings, many of which are highly sought after by today’s collectors.
His sympathetic and gentle manner, combined with his virtuosity as a major musical talent, provided many of these artistes with a mentor and the guiding hand that could enhance their own emerging talents. In some of his more eclectic moments, Fred was persuaded to collaborate with many of the famous film actors of the day as the creative force ‘to define the moods’ of stars such as Harpo Marx, one of the renowned Marx Brothers, who was also a talented harpist. Fred also composed and directed the music score to the award winning album of actor Sidney Poitier reading from the writings of Plato!
To add to the confusion of working out who Katz the man really is, the albums under his own name have to be studied: with passing reference to the vagaries of the art directors who decided that the album cover for Fred Katz and his Jammers (Decca DL 9217, 1958), should have the man in question ostensibly playing his cello, sitting on a rock, on the beach being ogled by an Elke Sommer look-alike in a skirted bikini bottom! (Oh for the return of those wild, heady days …….. not!)
If a punter could get past this, and believe me, being of a particular age myself, many could and were excited to find that the sextet included Katz stalwarts Johnny Pisano on guitar, vibist Gene Estes and bassist Leroy Vinegar. Pete Candoli is also in there taking trumpet solos supported by drummer Frank Butler until Billy Higgins sits in to back solos by jazz trumpeter Don Fagerquist.
Metronome magazine editor at the time, Bill Coss, commented on ‘the Katz personality, unmistakably virile and lyrical, unmistakably jazz, and an uncommonly happy listening experience’.
This has often been the case with the music of the multi talented Fred Katz; gentle man, incisive teacher, knowledgeable mentor, gifted composer, cellist, musician and all round creative genius.
With much of the same line-up, but including leading reed man Paul Horn, Fred also produced a number of albums under his own name such as Zen, The Music of Fred Katz (Pacific Jazz PJ 1231, 1956), Soul-o-Cello (Decca DL 9202,1957); 4-5-6 Trio (Decca DL 9213, 1958); Folk Songs for Far Out Folks (Warner Bros WS 1277, again available from www.rebooters.net); and innovatively, providing the music for Ken Nordine’s albums Word Jazz (Dot DLP 3075) and Son of Word Jazz (Dot DLP 3096).
With jazz continuing to go many developments stimulated by the revolution created by Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie, drummer Chico Hamilton decided to innovate still further and invited Fred Katz to add his particular musical talent to a new quintet.
Claimed as the first unit to use the cello as a featured jazz instrument, Fred’s unique input and interest in ethnic music, helped Chico to expand his repertoire beyond cool jazz and bebop and provided the means to explore new areas and weave classical, Middle Eastern and Asian themes into their performances.
During their productive and mould breaking time together, the Quintet created a number of stellar performances, both live and recorded. Some of the most important and exciting work of this period was captured on Pacific Jazz and released and still available as a limited edition box set on Mosaic Records.
Fred and Chico can also be seen and heard in the award winning, Burt Lancaster and Tony Curtis movie Sweet Smell of Success. They collaborated on composing the four numbers the group performs in the film and are also spotted hanging around backstage in other scenes.
At the same time, the energetic and diverse Mr Katz continued to work in the studio system, collaborating briefly for the now cult Producer Roger Corman. In under 18 months, Fred wrote original scores for Little Shop of Horrors, Bucket of Blood and The Wasp Woman, although cynics have often suggested that ‘with the similarity of musical cues within the various films, it could be assumed that Corman had used the same score for each’.
In the mid to late sixties, the unpredictable virtuoso again changed tack and accepted the post of Professor in Cultural Anthropology at California State University, Fullerton in Orange County, south of Los Angeles. As well as writing a number of theses on ethnological music and the pre literate peoples, one of which in collaboration with Marlene Dobkin DeRios had the intriguing title, ‘Some relationships between music and hallucinogenic ritual: the ‘jungle gym’ in consciousness’, he developed a department which used other disciplines to fully realize the diversity of cultural anthropology.
Not content with being accredited as the first musician to use and compose for the cello in jazz, this award winning composer of jazz scores for movies and television films has written numerous compositions for piano, cello, jazz ensembles and voice.
Many of his classical works have been acclaimed by both performers and critics and include a major Concerto for Cello and Jazz Wind Orchestra, a Violin Sonata, chamber works for a variety of combinations including two celli and piano, a flute duo, a string quintet, voice, cello and piano, and a number of pieces for solo cello.
Fred Katz ‘retired’ in around 1990, he says, although many believe he was just kidding himself as it is almost impossible for someone with such a given talent to put the brain into even second gear. He continued to practice cello every morning following a period of meditation and from time to time, would sketch his thoughts on new music and from time to time, take the opportunity to play and perform to students and small public gatherings.
In 2003, approached by long time fan and management consultant, Harry PATON EVANS, he took on the task of having a ‘business manager’ and publisher, who cajoles, badgers, pleads and requests and often receives, many unpublished and forgotten scores and an increasing amount of new work, all bearing the unmistakable stamp of the maestro.
The older works are being transcribed from the original pencil scores; the lost works are being re-discovered and the new works are being presented to current generations of players and virtuosi who, like many before them, are having their lives brightened and their senses heightened by the emotion and musicality of the talent who is, simply, Mr Fred Katz.
Louis Malle was a French film director, working in both French and English.
Malle was born into a wealthy industrialist family in Thumeries, Nord, France. He initially studied political science at the Sorbonne before turning to film studies at IDHEC instead.
He worked as the co-director and cameraman to Jacques Cousteau on the Oscar and Palme d'Or-winning (at the 1956 Academy Awards and Cannes Film Festival respectively) documentary The Silent World (1956) and assisted Robert Bresson on A Man Escaped (French title: Un condamné à mort s'est échappé ou Le vent souffle où il veut, 1956) before making his first feature, Ascenseur pour l'échafaud (originally released in the U.S. as Frantic, later as Elevator to the Gallows) in 1957. A taut thriller featuring an original score by Miles Davis, the film made an international film star of Jeanne Moreau, at the time a leading stage actress of the state Comédie-Française. Malle was 24 years old.
Malle's The Lovers (Les Amants, 1958), which also starred Moreau, caused major controversy due to its sexual content leading to a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case regarding the legal definition of obscenity. In Jacobellis v. Ohio, a theater owner was fined $2500 for obscenity. It was eventually reversed by the higher court that found that the film was not obscene and hence constitutionally protected. However, the court could not agree on the definition of "obscene," which caused Justice Potter Stewart to utter his "I know it when I see it" opinion, perhaps the most famous single line associated with the court.
Malle is sometimes incorrectly associated with the nouvelle vague - his work does not fit in or correspond to the auteurist theories that apply to the work of Truffaut, Chabrol, Rohmer, and others, and he had nothing whatsoever to do with Cahiers du cinema. Nonetheless, his film Zazie dans le métro ("Zazie in the Metro," 1960, an adaptation of the Raymond Queneau novel) did inspire Truffaut to write an enthusiastic letter to Malle.
Other films also tackled taboo subjects: The Fire Within ("Le Feu follet") (1963) centres on a man about to commit suicide, Murmur of the Heart (1971) deals with an incestuous relationship between mother and son and Lacombe Lucien (1974) is about collaboration with the Nazis in Vichy France in World War II. The second film earned Malle his first (of three) Academy Award nominations for "Best Writing, Story and Screenplay Based on Factual Material or Material Not Previously Published or Produced."
Malle later moved to the United States and continued to direct there. His later films include Pretty Baby (1978), Atlantic City (1981), My Dinner with Andre (1981), Crackers (1984), Alamo Bay (1985), Damage (1992) and Vanya on 42nd Street (1994, an adaptation of Anton Chekhov's play Uncle Vanya) in English; Au revoir, les enfants (1987) and Milou en Mai (May Fools in the U.S., 1990) in French. It is interesting to note that just as his earlier films such as Frantic and The Lovers helped popularize French films in the United States, My Dinner with Andre was at the forefront of the rise of American independent cinema in the 1980s.
Malle was married to Anne-Marie Deschodt from 1965 to 1967. He had a son, Manuel Cuotemoc (born 1971), with German actress Gila von Weitershausen and a daughter Justine (born 1974) with Canadian-born French actress Alexandra Stewart.
He married actress Candice Bergen in 1981. They had one child, a daughter, Chloé Malle, in 1985. He died at their home in Beverly Hills, California, of lymphoma.
Marvin Mandel a member of the United States Democratic Party, was the 56th Governor of Maryland in the United States from January 7, 1969 to January 17, 1979. He was Maryland's first, and to date, only, Jewish governor.
Mandel was born in Baltimore, Maryland and attended the Baltimore City Public Schools. He also attended Baltimore City College before receiving his law degree from the University of Maryland School of Law.
Mandel was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates in 1952, representing Baltimore City (District 5). Mandel was chosen as speaker of the house in 1963 and served in that position until 1969, at which point he was elected Governor by the Maryland General Assembly following the resignation of Spiro Agnew. (Agnew had resigned as governor to serve as Vice President of the United States under then President Richard Nixon). Mandel was elected by the people in 1970 and again in 1974.
Mandel's administration was notable for many reasons. While governor; the executive branch of the Maryland government was reorganized into twelve departments. The mass-transit system of Maryland fostered under him, enacting plans for the establishment of subways for Baltimore City and the Washington, DC suburbs. Additionally, a large public school construction initiative was undertaken while he was governor.
The negative highlight of Mandel's governorship was his conviction of mail fraud and racketeering. As a result, on June 4, 1977, Governor Mandel notified Lieutenant Governor Blair Lee III that Lee would serve as acting governor until further notice. (Lee continued to serve as acting governor until January 15, 1979, when Mandel rescinded his letter appointing Lee Acting Governor two days before the expiration of his second full elective term). Mandel served nineteen months in prison before having his sentence commuted by President Ronald Reagan. Based on the reasoning of recent opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court, a U.S. District Judge overturned Mandel's conviction in 1987. A year later, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit affirmed.
Joseph Leo Mankiewicz was an American Academy Award-winning director, screenwriter, and producer.
Born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania to Franz Mankiewicz (?–1941) and Johanna Blumenau, immigrants from Poland. He had a sister, Erna Mankiewicz (1901–1979), and a brother, Herman J. Mankiewicz, a screenwriter.
Mankiewicz moved with his family to New York City where he graduated in 1924 from Stuyvesant High School. In 1928, he obtained a bachelor's degree from Columbia University. For a time he worked in Berlin, Germany, as a foreign correspondent for the Chicago Tribune newspaper before being lured into the motion picture business.
During his long career in Hollywood, Mankiewicz wrote forty-eight screenplays, including All About Eve, for which he won an Academy Award. He also produced more than twenty films including The Philadelphia Story which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1941. However, he is best known for the films he directed, twice winning the Academy Award for Directing. In 1944, he produced The Keys of the Kingdom, which starred his wife, Rose Stradner, and Gregory Peck.
In 1958, Mankiewicz directed The Quiet American an adaptation of Graham Greene's 1955 novel about the seed of American military involvement in what would become the Vietnam War. Mankiewicz, under career pressure from the climate of anti-Communism and the Hollywood blacklist, distorted the message of Greene's book, changing major parts of the story to appeal to a national audience. A cautionary tale about America's blind support for "anti-Communists" was turned into, according to Greene, a "propaganda film for America."
He was the younger brother of Herman J. Mankiewicz. His sons are writer/director Tom Mankiewicz and producer Christopher Mankiewicz. He also has a daughter named Alexandra Mankiewicz. His great-nephew is radio & television personality Ben Mankiewicz, currently on TCM.
Mankiewicz, who died in 1993, was interred in Saint Matthew's Episcopal Churchyard cemetery, Bedford, New York.
Christopher Morley was an American journalist, novelist, essayist and poet.
Born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania while his father was a mathematics professor at Haverford College. Morley graduated from this same school in 1910 as valedictorian. He then went to New College, Oxford for three years on a Rhodes Scholarship, studying modern history. Arriving home, he headed out to Garden City, New York, to begin his life of letters at Doubleday, where he worked as a publicist and publisher's reader. About this time he married Helen Fairchild, and they lived first in Hempstead, and then in Queens Village. Morley moved to Philadelphia where he got his start as a newspaper reporter and then columnist for various publications. In 1920, he returned to New York City and took a job writing the column The Bowling Green for the New York Evening Post.
He was one of the founders and long-time contributing editor of the Saturday Review of Literature. A highly gregarious man, he was the mainstay of what he dubbed the "Three Hours for Lunch Club". Out of enthusiasm for the Sherlock Holmes stories, he became the founder of the Baker Street Irregulars and wrote the introduction to the standard omnibus edition of The Complete Sherlock Holmes. In 1936 he was appointed to revise and enlarge Bartlett's Familiar Quotations (1937, 1948). He was one of the first judges for the Book-of-the Month Club, serving in that position until the early 1950s.
Author of more than 100 books of essays, poetry, and novels, Morley is probably best known as the author of Kitty Foyle (1939), which was made into an Academy Award-winning movie. Other well known works include Thunder on the Left (1925), and The Haunted Bookshop (1919) and Parnassus on Wheels (1917), his two novels of a fictional bookseller.
For most of his life, he lived in Roslyn Estates, Nassau County, Long Island, commuting to the city on the Long Island Rail Road, about which he wrote affectionately. In 1961, a 98-acre (400,000 m2) park was named in his honor in Nassau County. This park preserves his studio, the "Knothole", as a point of interest, his furniture and bookcases available to the historically-interested public.
Andreas Georgiou Papandreou was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a dominant figure in Greek politics. He served two terms as Prime Minister of Greece (October 21, 1981, to July 2, 1989, and October 13, 1993, to January 22, 1996). In 1999, Papandreou was posthumously awarded the Swedish Order of the Polar Star.
Papandreou was born on the island of Chios, Greece, the son of the leading Greek liberal politician George Papandreou. His mother, born Zofia (Sofia) Mineyko, was half Polish. Before university, he attended Athens Experimental (Piramatiko) Lyceum, a leading public secondary education institution in Greece. He attended the University of Athens from 1937, and from 1938. The Greek Parliament approved Ioannis Metaxas as Prime Minister in April 1936. After a turbulent period of strikes and unrest, Metaxas by Royal Decree suspended the Parliament on 4 August 1936 and prepared Greece ultimately for World War II.
In 1942, Papandreou enrolled at Harvard University, where he completed a doctorate in economics. In 1943, Papandreou joined America's war effort and volunteered for the US Navy where he served as a nurse at Bethesda Hospital for war wounded, and became a United States citizen. He returned to Harvard in 1946 and served as a lecturer and associate professor until 1947. He then held professorships at the University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, the University of California, Berkeley (where he was chair of the Department of Economics), the University of Stockholm and York University in Toronto, Canada. In 1948, he entered into a relationship with University of Minnesota journalism student Margaret Chant. After Chant obtained a divorce and after his own divorce with Christina Rasia, his first wife, Papandreou and Chant were married in 1951. They had three sons and a daughter.
Papandreou returned to Greece in 1959, where he headed an economic development research program, by invitation of Prime Minister Constantine Karamanlis. In 1960, he was appointed Chairman of the Board of Directors and General Director of the Athens Economic Research Center, and Advisor to the Bank of Greece. In 1963, his father George Papandreou, head of the Center Union, became Prime Minister of Greece. Andreas became his chief economic advisor. He renounced his American citizenship and was elected to the Greek Parliament in the Greek legislative election, 1964. He immediately became Minister to the First Ministry of State (in effect, assistant Prime Minister).
Papandreou took publicly a neutral stand on the Cold War and wished for Greece to be more independent from the USA. He also criticized the massive presence of American military and intelligence in Greece, and sought to remove senior officers with "anti-democratic tendencies" from the Greek military.
In 1965, while the "Aspida" conspiracy within the Army, alleged by the political opposition to involve Andreas personally, was being investigated, George Papandreou moved to fire the defense minister and assume the post himself. King Constantine refused to endorse this move and essentially forced George Papandreou's resignation. Greece entered a period of political polarisation and instability, which ended with the coup d'état of 21 April 1967.
When the Greek Colonels led by George Papadopoulos seized power in April 1967, Andreas was incarcerated while his father George Papandreou was put under house arrest. George Papandreou, already at advanced age, died in 1968.Under American pressure, the military regime released Andreas on condition that he leave the country. In Paris, while in exile, Andreas Papandreou formed an "anti-dictatorship organization", the Panhellenic Liberation Movement (PAK), and toured the world rallying opposition to the Greek military regime. Despite his former American citizenship and academic career in the United States, Papandreou held the Central Intelligence Agency responsible for the 1967 coup and became increasingly critical of the U.S. Government.
In the early seventies, during the latter phase of the dictatorship in Greece, Papandreou, along with most leading Greek politicians, in exile or in Greece, opposed the process of political normalisation attempted by George Papadopoulos and his appointed PM, Spyros Markezinis. In August 6, 1974, Andreas Papandreou called an extraordinary meeting of the National Congress of PAK in Winterthur, Switzerland, which decided its dissolution without announcing it publicly.
Papandreou returned to Greece after the fall of the junta in 1974, during metapolitefsi, and formed a new "radical" party, the Panhellenic Socialist Movement, or PASOK. Most of his former PAK companions, as well as members of other anti-dictatorial groups such as the Democratic Defense joined in the new party. He also testified in the first of the Greek junta trials about the alleged involvement of the junta with the CIA.
At that year's elections, PASOK received only 13.5% of the vote, but in 1977 it polled 25%, and Papandreou became Leader of the Opposition. At the 1981 elections, PASOK won a landslide victory over the conservative New Democracy Party, and Papandreou became Greece's first socialist Prime Minister.
In office, Papandreou backtracked from much of his campaign rhetoric and followed a more conventional approach. Greece did not withdraw from NATO, United States troops and military bases were not ordered out of Greece, and Greek membership in the European Economic Community continued. In domestic politics, Papandreou's government carried through sweeping reforms of social policy by expanding health care coverage (the "National Health System" was instituted), promoting state-subsidized tourism for lower-income families, and funding social establishments for the elderly. In a move strongly opposed by the Greek Orthodox Church, Papandreou introduced, for the first time in Greece, the process of civil marriage. Prior to the institution of civil marriages in Greece, the only legally recognized marriages were those conducted in the Greek Orthodox Church. Couples seeking a civil marriage had to get married outside Greece, generally in Italy. Also, under PASOK, the Greek State also appropriated real estate properties previously owned by the Church.
Papandreou introduced various reforms in the administration and curriculum of the Greek educational system, allowing students to participate in the election process for their professors and deans in the university, and abolishing tenure.
A major part of Papandreou's allagi (change) involved driving out the "old families" ("tzakia" literally: fireplaces using the traditional Greek expression for the genealogy of families), which allegedly influenced Greek politics from behind the scenes and belonged to the traditional Greek Right.
Papandreou was comfortably re-elected in 1985 with 46% of the vote, but, in the years to follow, his premiership became increasingly clouded by controversy and scandal. In 1989, he divorced his wife Margaret Papandreou and married Dimitra Liani, while in the same year he was indicted by Parliament in connection with a US$200 million Bank of Crete embezzlement scandal, and was accused of facilitating the embezzlement by ordering state corporations to transfer their holdings to the Bank of Crete, where the interest was allegedly skimmed off to benefit PASOK, and possibly some of its highest functionaries. Following the many repercussions of the so-called Koskotas scandal, the 1989 elections produced a deadlock, leading to a prolonged political crisis. Papandreou's PASOK's won 40% of the popular vote, compared to the rival New Democracy's 46%, and, due to changes made in electoral law one year before the elections by the then reigning PASOK administration, New Democracy was not able to form a government. In the wake of three consecutive elections between 1989 and 1990, the New Democracy leader, Constantine Mitsotakis, eventually received sufficient support to form a government. In January 1992, Papandreou himself was cleared of any wrongdoing in the Koskotas scandal after a 7-6 vote in the specially convened High Court trial, ordered by the Greek parliament, with the support of both main parties, New Democracy and PASOK.
Papandreou confounded his critics by winning the next general elections of October 1993 ; however, his fragile health kept him from exercising firm political leadership. He was hospitalized with advanced heart disease and kidney failure on November 20, 1995 and finally retired from office on January 16, 1996. He died on June 23, 1996, with his funeral procession producing an outpouring of public emotion.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss philosopher and natural scientist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called "genetic epistemology."
The very great importance he attached to the education of children made him declare in 1934 in his role as Director of the International Bureau of Education that ‘only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual’.
In 1955 he created the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and directed it until 1980. According to Ernst von Glasersfeld, Jean Piaget is "the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing."
Piaget was born in 1896 in Neuchâtel in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. His father, Arthur Piaget, was a professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchâtel. Piaget was a precocious child who developed an interest in biology and the natural world, particularly molluscs, and even published a number of papers before he graduated from high school. In fact, his long career of scientific research began when he was just eleven, with the 1907 publication of a short paper on the albino sparrow. Over the course of his career, Piaget wrote more than sixty books and several hundred articles.
Piaget received a Ph.D. in natural science from the University of Neuchâtel, and also studied briefly at the University of Zürich. During this time, he published two philosophical papers which showed the direction of his thinking at the time, but which he later dismissed as adolescent work. His interest in psychoanalysis, a strain of psychological thought burgeoning at that time, can also be dated to this period. He then moved from Switzerland to Paris, France, where he taught at the Grange-Aux-Belles street school for boys run by Alfred Binet, the developer of the Binet intelligence test. It was while he was helping to mark some instances of these intelligence tests that Piaget noticed that young children consistently gave wrong answers to certain questions. Piaget did not focus so much on the fact of the children's answers being wrong, but that young children kept making the same pattern of mistakes that older children and adults did not. This led him to the theory that young children's thought or cognitive processes are inherently different from those of adults. (Ultimately, he was to propose a global theory of developmental stages stating that individuals exhibit certain distinctive common patterns of cognition in each period in their development.) In 1921, Piaget returned to Switzerland as director of the Rousseau Institute in Geneva.
In 1923, he married Valentine Châtenay, one of his students; together, the couple had three children, whom Piaget studied from infancy. In 1929, Jean Piaget accepted the post of Director of the International Bureau of Education and remained the head of this international organization until 1968.
John Marlan Poindexter is a retired American naval officer and Department of Defense official. He was Deputy National Security Advisor and National Security Advisor for the Reagan administration. He was convicted in April 1990 of multiple felonies as a result of his actions in the Iran-Contra scandal. His convictions were eventually reversed on appeal in 1991. More recently, he served a brief stint as the Director of the DARPA Information Awareness Office for the administration of George W. Bush.
He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1958, where he was first in his class, and among his fellow graduates was Senator John McCain. National Security Advisor Robert McFarlane graduated the following year. From 1961 to 1964, Poindexter studied as a graduate student and earned his PHD at Caltech, where he conducted laboratory research to further develop a model for understanding the Mossbauer Effect with Nobel Laureate Rudolph Mossbauer.
While commander of a destroyer squadron, he was Surface Warfare and Anti-submarine warfare Commander of battle groups in the Western Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, and he developed new tactics and battle management procedures under the Composite Warfare Commander concept. As the commanding officer of USS England, he pioneered the shipboard use of computers to manage the ship's force portion of yard overhauls.
He was also an executive officer and a chief engineer of destroyers.
As Deputy Commander of the Naval Education and Training Command, his duties included commanding the US Navy's extensive education and training programs, for which he initiated a project to develop a distributed data management system for more efficient management of training pipelines.
His significant staff assignments included: Executive Assistant to the Chief of Naval Operations, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy and Special Assistant for Systems Analysis to the Secretary of Defense. He reached the rank of Vice Admiral, but was retired as a Rear Admiral in 1987.
Poindexter went on to serve in the Reagan Administration as Military Assistant, from 1981 to 1983, as Deputy National Security Advisor from 1983 to 1985, and as National Security Advisor from 1985 to 1986. From 1983 to 1985, Poindexter was responsible for leading and managing the National Security Council staff as chairman of the Crisis Pre-planning Group. As National Security Advisor, Vice Admiral Poindexter was responsible for providing recommendations to the President on national security, foreign policy and defense policy.
Major events in which he played a significant role for the Executive branch included: the Strategic Defense Initiative, Operation Urgent Fury, the Achille Lauro incident, Operation El Dorado Canyon (in response to Libyan terrorist attacks), the Reykjavik Summit with the Soviets.
Poindexter was convicted on multiple felony counts on April 7, 1990 for conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury, defrauding the government, and the alteration and destruction of evidence pertaining to the Iran-Contra Affair. The convictions were reversed in 1991 on the technical grounds that the prosecution's evidence may have been tainted by exposure to Poindexter's testimony before the joint House-Senate committee investigating the matter, in which Poindexter's testimony was compelled by a grant of 'use immunity'. The prosecution was not able to re-try the case.
From 1988 to 1989, Poindexter was senior scientist at Presearch, Inc., which had primarily been involved with defense studies and analysis. Faced with anticipated defense budget reductions, Poindexter joined the firm to develop new commercial enterprises. He designed and developed hardware and software for the prototype of a digital real-time, imaging system to be used for physical security of high value facilities. It was used to obtain a contract for a nuclear power plant security system.
From 1990 to 1996, Poindexter served as co-founder of TP Systems, Inc., a software development firm specializing in commercial software for the IBM PCs and compatibles; Poindexter was the chief designer and programmer. Development included a symbolic debugger for multi-tasking environments, a BBS communications program, and numerous utility programs.
From 1993 to 1996, Poindexter served as a consultant to Elkins Group. Elkins was a business alliance with Electronic Data Systems (EDS), which has developed the Elkins Interactive Training Network (EITN); a satellite based training delivery system. Poindexter was the chairman of the Maritime Advisory Committee and a member of Elkins' board of directors. He also provided advice on strategic planning.
From 1996 to 2002 Poindexter served as senior vice president for SYNTEK Technologies. SYNTEK is a small high technology firm with contracts in domestic and international defense and commercial business. Poindexter was responsible for high-level advice on management and direction of information systems projects (for example Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's Project Genoa).
From December 2002, to August 2003, Poindexter served as the Director of the DARPA Information Awareness Office (IAO). The controversial mission of the IAO was to imagine, develop, apply, integrate, demonstrate and transition information technologies, components, and prototype closed-loop information systems that will counter asymmetric threats (most notably, terrorist threats) by achieving total information awareness: enabling preemption; national security warning; and, national security decision making.
Poindexter also faced immense criticism from the media and politicians about the Policy Analysis Market project, a prediction market that would have rewarded participants for accurately predicting geopolitical trends in the Middle East. This was portrayed in the media as profiting from the assassination of heads of state and acts of terrorism due to such events being mentioned on illustrative sample screens showing the interface. The controversy over the futures market led to a Congressional audit of the IAO in general, which revealed a fundamental lack of privacy protection for American citizens. Funding for the IAO was subsequently cut and Poindexter retired from DARPA on August 12, 2003.
Frank McKinney Hubbard was an American cartoonist, humorist, and journalist better known by his pen name "Kin" Hubbard.
He was creator of the cartoon "Abe Martin of Brown County" which ran in U.S. newspapers from 1904 until his death in 1930, and was the originator of many political quips that remain in use. North American humorist Will Rogers reportedly declared Kin to be "America's greatest humorist."
Frank McKinney Hubbard was the youngest member of a family that included five older brothers and sisters. Fred C. Kelly, who chronicled his friend's career in The Life and Times of Kin Hubbard, remarked that Kin, who was named after his father's friend, an Ohio politician, was part of an eccentric family. "Neighbors often said the Hubbards were 'the best people on earth and the queerest,'" Kelly remembered. Kin's father, Thomas Hubbard, was a fiercely Democratic newspaper editor who often suffered for his political beliefs. During the Civil War when he was editing a Democratic weekly, the Empire, in Dayton, an angry crowd threw the crusading journalist out of a second-story window. Luckily, Hubbard's fall was broken by an awning and the editor moved on to friendlier surroundings in Bellefontaine, where he established the Weekly Examiner.
Reminiscing about her husband's family, Josephine (Jackson) Hubbard, whom Kin married in 1905, said that the Hubbard family would often gather around the fireplace in the evening to discuss the day's events, especially the different characters who wandered into the newspaper office. The discussions, however, soon turned into arguments that became so heated, according to Josephine, that the family would all leave the room. Eventually, the family ended up back in front of the fireplace. "It was the strangest family you ever saw, loyal but opinionated," she said.
In these interesting surroundings, Kin displayed an artistic flair at an early age. In an autobiographical sketch he provided the News a few years before his death, Hubbard said that from the time he was old enough to hold a pair of scissors, he could "cut from blank paper any kind of an animal with a correctness and deftness that was almost creepy." This artistic talent, however, did not translate into classroom success, as Hubbard dropped out of school before the seventh grade and took a job in a paint shop. His father couldn't be too upset at his youngest child, as he seemed to miss Kin's presence during the day. He once complained to a teacher who made his son stay after school that if his son "doesn't get his lessons, it's because you don't know how to teach. Besides, the boy's needed for errands at home."
Although displaying no enthusiasm for school work, Hubbard, like fellow Hoosier humorist George Ade, who figured prominently in the artist's subsequent career, displayed a passion for the theatrical life. From his youth until his death, Hubbard would drop whatever he was doing if a circus came to town. He also was a familiar presence at Bellefontaine's Grand Opera House, where he was the official seat duster. Asked by the owner of the paint shop where he worked what he wanted to be, Hubbard had a career in mind: "I want to be the sole proprietor of a good, well-painted, comprehensive, one-ring circus."
Politics, however, provided Hubbard with another livelihood. With the election of Democrat Grover Cleveland to his first term as president in 1884, Hubbard's father was rewarded for his lifelong devotion to the Democratic party with an appointment as postmaster. Kin clerked at the post office for a time, but it did not cure his ambition for the theatrical life. During his employment, he made trips to the South as a silhouette artist and even enrolled in the Jefferson School of Art in Detroit. That experience, however, lasted only a short time as Hubbard complained that the school was "too tame."
In looking back over these years, Hubbard blamed his wanderlust on the fact that he had a secure home to rely upon. "I knew during those formative years that I could always return home, walk up to the desk behind the general delivery window and go to work at a living wage in the post office," he said. Although always busy in one occupation or another, Hubbard realized that his life lacked direction. "While I worked hard, I dilly-dallied. I paid a big price for the knowledge that I had a soft place to alight, back home," he recalled.
Hubbard's love for the theater, however, paid off in a way that set the course for his future career. After witnessing a local performance of the Grand Bellefontaine Operatic Minstrels and Professor Tom Wright's Operatic Solo Orchestra, Hubbard wrote to a friend in Indianapolis about the show, embellishing his remarks with some drawings. Impressed with Hubbard's artwork, the friend showed the drawings to John H. Holliday, Indianapolis News owner and editor. The friend wrote to Hubbard and urged him to come to Indiana and try for a job on the News. Hubbard agreed, but once in the city he sat in University Park for nearly a week before gaining enough courage to approach the newspaper for work. Finally given a job, Hubbard remembered the editor remarking as a salary was agreed upon ($12 a week), "I reckon you've got to live."
Hired in 1891, Hubbard remained at the News for three years. During that time he produced a number of works for the newspaper, but, as he remembered, was "always handicapped by not knowing how to draw. I could execute rude, sketchy caricatures that were readily recognized, but I knew nothing of composition, light and shade, and perspective." Although apprehensive about his position, Hubbard did manage to enjoy his life in Indianapolis. Given an annual pass to local theaters, he never missed a show or, when they came to town, a circus. Admittedly not advancing his skills as a newspaper artist, Hubbard was nevertheless "storing up a vast amount of theatrical knowledge and incidentally accumulating a fine assortment of canes and overgaiters."
The end of his first stint at the News came about as the result of the hiring of a new managing editor who wanted, according to Hubbard, "a real artist who could draw anything." Called upon by the editor to produce a drawing of an angel for Easter, Hubbard didn't panic, but hurried to the city editor, who liked the young man, and asked for his help. The sympathetic editor found an art student to furnish the needed illustration (described by Hubbard as a "production that would have made a circus wagon woodcarver turn green with envy") and Hubbard's job was saved for a time.
His time at the News, however, would be short. Called upon to draw for the newspaper pictures of the intricately-restored interiors for a number of city banks, Hubbard threw up his hands and departed Indianapolis for the safety of the family home in Bellefontaine. During the next few years, Hubbard kept busy by again visiting the South, driving a mule team in Chattanooga, serving as a gatekeeper for a Cincinnati amusement park, and working as an artist for the Cincinnati Tribune and Mansfield (Ohio) News. In 1899, the thirty-one-year-old Hubbard received a letter from the Indianapolis Sun inviting him to work for the newspaper. He accepted the offer and during the two years he worked at the Sun "really made more progress as an artist . . . than I had in all the years before," he said. Hubbard rejoined the News as an artist in the fall of 1901 and worked there until his death.
Upon his return to the News, Hubbard became well-known for his caricatures of state political figures, particularly Indiana legislators. In working with politicians as subjects, he preferred to draw those with whiskers and hair, as caricaturing bald lawmakers was "just like drawing a cocoanut." Although a collection of these drawings was published in 1903, Hubbard's lasting fame would come not from politicians, but from a rustic character who made a habit of commenting on legislator's foibles all the way from the wild country of Brown County.
In 1904, while traveling on trains during campaign trips by Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan and Republic vice presidential candidate Charles Fairbanks, Hubbard found that at campaign's end he had some extra material. After first experimenting with such names as Seth Martin, Steve Martin, and Abe Hulsizer, Hubbard finally hit on the right one--Abe Martin. On 17 December 1904 the Abe Martin character made his first appearance. The drawing showed a smiling, whiskered gentleman staring at a playbill featuring a scantily-clad (for those days) woman. At the drawing's bottom, the character commented: "If I thought that blamed troupe done everything it has pictures fer, I'd stay over this evening and go home on the interubin." The feature, Hubbard laconically recalled years later, "caused some favorable comment and it was decided to continue it."
On 3 February 1905, Hubbard moved Abe Martin to Brown County, where he would remain for the rest of his career. The artist described the area as "a rugged, almost mountainous, wooded section of Indiana without telegraphic or railroad connections--a county whose natives for the most part subsist by blackberrying, sassafras-mining and basket making." Finding that sometimes he had things to say that Abe Martin would be unlikely to utter, Hubbard added to his cast with such delightful country neighbors as spinster Miss Fawn Lippincut; senior citizen Uncle Niles Turner; teacher Professor Alexander Tansey; editor and publisher of the Bloom Center Weekly Sliphorn the Hon. Ex-Editor Cale Fluhart; businessman Tell Binkley; and many others. In naming his characters, Hubbard sometimes used the names of people he knew in Bellefontaine. He also found that another good source was Kentucky jury lists.
An immediate hit with News readers, Abe Martin found an expanded audience in 1905 when Hubbard himself, just in time for the Christmas season, released a book featuring Abe and his humorous remarks--a publishing tradition that continued for years to come. Along with Abe Martin's remarks, the first collection included an introduction by Meredith Nicholson and a poetic tribute to the character from the Hoosier Poet himself, James Whitcomb Riley, who immediately recognized that the Ohio native had in his hands a potential gold mine.
Shortly after the first book was released, Hubbard happened to meet Riley on the street. Hubbard noted that Riley told him: "Kin, your book is bully: You've found yourself. You've got a great character in Abe and there is no end to his possibilities. I want you to stick right with him, and some day (taking a pencil from his pocket and holding it up) you'll be receiving checks--money--and you'll be amazed at what a lead pencil and a little thinking will do."
Hubbard's career received an additional boost in 1910, again thanks to a Hoosier author. In May of that year an article about the Abe Martin feature appeared in American magazine. The article's author, the aforementioned Ade, lavishly praised Hubbard's work. "His comments on men and affairs prove him to be a grim iconoclast, an analytical philosopher and a good deal of a cutup," Ade said of his fellow Hoosier humorist. Before the article had appeared, Hubbard's friend Kelly had been trying to find a firm to syndicate Abe Martin nationally. Kelly was turned down by the McClure Newspaper Syndicate in New York because that agency thought Abe Martin was merely a local phenomenon. Ade's piece changed that view in a hurry, as syndication offers poured in after its publication. Hubbard signed with the George Matthew Adams Syndicate and Abe Martin was soon appearing in approximately 200 cities.
Hubbard's working environment at the News was very conducive to creating humorous comments. He worked in a section of the newspaper that came to be dubbed the "Idle Ward." Along with Hubbard, other members of that delightful company included ace reporter William Herschell and cartoonist Gaar Williams. The trio was productive, but Kelly noted that the men "seemed idle to others because they always had time for talk." Herschell, best known today for his poem "Ain't God Good to Indiana?," had fond memories of those days at the News with Hubbard. Herschell recalled once incident that highlighted Hubbard's ability not only to find humor in others, but in himself as well. A devoted fan of perennial Democrat presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, Hubbard took the Bryan's last defeat in stride. Ducking into a darkroom at the News after Bryan's campaign went down in flames, Hubbard soon appeared swathed head to foot in bandages and supported by crutches. Herschell noted that his friend "limped through the editorial rooms. He neither smiled nor spoke, but went on his battered way, the rest of us roaring our delight at his satire."
Although he had repeated job offers from other newspapers, Hubbard remained at the News, where he eventually left the "Idle Ward" for a private office. "He was very devoted to the News," his wife Josephine noted. "The News had been good to him and he'd been good to them." Along with Abe Martin's success, Hubbard also produced for the newspaper a popular weekly series of humorous essays for the Sunday section called "Short Furrows." When asked why he stayed in Indianapolis, Hubbard quoted a friend of his whose uncle wanted him to relocate to Denver to run a drug store: "He said, 'I'd rather stay here where I'm known and can play in the band.'"
Despite the critical and popular acclaim Hubbard enjoyed for his work, he often seemed uneasy with his fame. His wife remembered enduring her husband's anger when she listed his occupation in the city directory as artist. "Well he just went clear to pieces. He said, 'Don't ever call me an artist 'cause I'm not.' I said, 'What are you?' He said, 'Well, I suppose you'd just call me a writer. I don't know,'" Josephine Hubbard told an interviewer. She also remembered that Hubbard didn't like being called a genius. "He didn't take it seriously ever," she said.
On Dec. 26, 1930, at his new North Meridian Street home, the sixty-two-year-old Hubbard died from a heart attack. Just the day before he told his wife and two children that it had been the happiest Christmas of his life. Tributes to Hubbard flooded the News following his death. Although touted as "the humorists' humorist" by D. Laurance Chambers of Indianapolis's Bobbs-Merrill Company, Hubbard probably wouldn't have let the praise go to his head, preferring to remember what Abe Martin once said: "Flattery won't hurt you if you don't swallow it."