30 March, 2012

Magnus von Wright

Magnus von Wright was a Finnish painter and ornithologist. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.

Born into a wealthy family in Kuopio, von Wright went to school in Turku and afterwards studied art in Stockholm under C. J. Fahlgranz and J. F. Julin. At the initiative of a fellow ornithologist, Nils Bonde, he began work on Svenska Foglar (1828-1838), a large illustrated volume on Swedish birds, in which he was aided by his younger brother, Wilhelm von Wright.

Following his return to Finland in 1829, von Wright worked as a cartographer, taxidermist and art instructor. In addition to several paintings of birds, he also made several landscapes andstill lifes.

It is noteworthy that both of von Wright's younger brothers, Wilhelm (1810-1887) andFerdinand (1822-1906) were also accomplished artists famous for their work on nature, especially birds.

James Edward FitzGerald

James Edward FitzGerald was a New Zealand politician. According to some historians, he should be considered the country's first Prime Minister, although a more conventional view is that neither he nor his successor (Thomas Forsaith) should properly be given that title. He was a notable campaigner for New Zealand self-governance. He was the first Superintendent of the Canterbury Province.

Early life

FitzGerald is believed to have been born in Bath, England. His parents, Gerald FitzGerald[1] and Katherine O'Brien,[2] were Irish, and FitzGerald is known to have cherished his connection with Ireland.[3] Both his grandfathers, Colonel Richard Fitzgerald and Sir Lucius O'Brien,[4] were MPsin the Irish House of Commons. He was educated first in Bath, and then at Christ's College of the University of Cambridge.[5] He initially sought a commission in the Royal Engineers, but poor eyesight made this impossible. Instead, he began working for the British Museum's Antiquities department, and became the museum's Assistant Secretary.[6]

FitzGerald gradually became concerned with the alleviation of poverty, an interest spurred by the problems of the Irish Potato Famine. His suggested solution to poverty was emigration to the colonies, where more opportunities might exist for prosperity. As such, he became heavily involved in the promotion and planning of new colonies. In 1849, he became secretary of theCanterbury Association, responsible for the Anglican settlement at Christchurch, New Zealand.

FitzGerald married Frances Erskine Draper on 22 August 1850,[6] and soon afterwards quarrelled with her father. As a result, FitzGerald and his wife themselves left for Christchurch. They arrived in Lyttelton, the port of Christchurch, on 16 December 1850 on board of the Charlotte-Jane.

In Christchurch, FitzGerald had a number of roles. He continued to act as an agent for the Canterbury Association, but also became a sub-inspector of police. He later established a cattle and dairy farm, and became the founding editor of the Lyttelton Times. Gradually, FitzGerald became one of the prominent public figures of the area.

Political career

Provincial superintendent

In July 1853, FitzGerald, Colonel James Campbell and Henry Tancred contested the first election for Superintendent of the Canterbury Province. They received 136, 94 and 89 votes, respectively. Campbell protested about the election, as the returning officer had indicated to the voters that he could not be elected, as he had been struck off the electoral list.[7][8] But the protest came to nothing, and Fitzgerald was declared the first Superintendent of the Canterbury Province.[9]

A major part of his work as Superintendent was an attempt to increase Canterbury's self-government, drawing the province's "cabinet" from the elected Council rather than appointing it himself. His goal was to make the province's executive responsible to its legislature.

Member of Parliament

When the 1st New Zealand Parliament was called, FitzGerald was elected MP for the Lyttelton electorate, and represented it from 1853 to 1857, when he resigned during the term of the 2nd New Zealand Parliament. Despite his election to Parliament, he chose to retain the Superintendency of Canterbury, a decision criticised by some. In Parliament, FitzGerald argued strongly in favour of "responsible government" once again, attempting to make New Zealand's executive responsible to Parliament rather than theGovernor. The acting Governor, Robert Wynyard, eventually agreed to appoint FitzGerald, Henry Sewell, Frederick Weld, and Thomas Bartley to the Executive Council. They were later joined briefly by Dillon Bell, a member of the Legislative Council.

FitzGerald was chosen to lead this delegation, which lasted from 14 June to 2 August, and is therefore sometimes said to have headed New Zealand's first "cabinet". He had no formal title, however, and did not have sufficient powers to actually govern. As such, most historians do not consider him to have been Prime Minister as the term is used today. FitzGerald accepted the position in the belief that full authority would later be transferred from Wynyard's appointees to the new cabinet, and was consequently angry when Wynyard claimed that royal assent (which had not been given) was necessary for this change to occur. Seven weeks after their appointment, FitzGerald's cabinet resigned, and was replaced by another cabinet of four persons headed by Thomas Forsaith.

Later, when the 2nd New Zealand Parliament managed to obtain the power that had eluded the 1st, FitzGerald was too ill to attend. Instead, Henry Sewell (one of FitzGerald's colleagues in the first attempted cabinet) was asked to form a government. Sewell is generally considered to be New Zealand's first real Prime Minister. In 1857, FitzGerald resigned from Parliament on the advice of his doctors, and also decided not to seek re-election as provincial superintendent.[3] Instead, he left Lyttelton on 30 September on the James Gibson for Sydney[10] and returned to England, where he resumed his work for the Canterbury Association. During his time in England, he was offered governorships of both British Columbia and Queensland, but his ill health prevented him from accepting.

1860, he had returned to New Zealand, and shortly afterwards won election to theCanterbury Provincial Council. He also founded The Press, which remains Christchurch's largest newspaper today. In 1862, he returned to national politics. The resignation of Thomas Rowley in the Ellesmere electorate caused the 12 July 1862 Ellesmere by-election, which FitzGerald won. He represented the seat until the end of the parliamentary term in 1866, and then successfully stood in the City of Christchurch electorate in 1866, from which he resigned the following year.[11]

In Parliament, he strongly advocated peaceful negotiations in the New Zealand land wars, supporting Māori rights and condemning land confiscation as an "enormous crime". He also campaigned to have primary responsibility for relations with the Māori transferred from the Governor to Parliament. Other suggestions he made included reserving a third of Parliament for Māori politicians, recognition of the "Māori King" movement, and the withdrawal of British troops from New Zealand. FitzGerald strongly believed that if Māori and colonists did not make a deliberate attempt at reconciliation, one or both would eventually be destroyed.

In 1865, he had a two-month term as Minister of Native Affairs in the government of Frederick Weld (another colleague from the first provisional cabinet), but did not succeed in implementing many of his policies.
His brother Gerald represented the Hokitika electorate for one term in Parliament.[12]

Later life

In 1867, FitzGerald retired from politics completely. He was subsequently moved toWellington and was appointed comptroller of the public account, supervising all government expenditures. Later, he also acted as Auditor-General. He retained these positions until his death. He was also seriously involved in the establishment of the Public Service Association, a union for all government employees.
FitzGerald was also active in the cultural life of the capital. He was known as a painter (mostly watercolours), public speaker, and debater, and also wrote poetry and drama.

FitzGerald died in Wellington on 2 August 1896, aged 78.[3] He was buried in the Bolton Street Cemetery. Two of his children who both died in 1880 share the grave, as well as a female relative who died in 1886. His wife died on 8 July 1900 and is also buried in this plot.[13] The grave forms is stop number 36 of the lower Bolton Memorial Trail.[14]


1. ^ "Gerald FitzGerald". The Peerage. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
2. ^ "Katherine O'Brien". The Peerage. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
3. ^ a b c McIntyre, W. David (updated 22 June 2007). "FitzGerald, James Edward 1818–1896". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
4. ^ "Rt. Hon. Sir Lucius O'Brien, 3rd Bt.". The Peerage. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
5. ^ Venn, J.; Venn, J. A., eds. (1922–1958). "Fitzgerald, James Edward". Alumni Cantabrigienses (10 vols) (online ed.).Cambridge University Press.
6. ^ a bhttp://christchurchcitylibraries.com/Heritage/EarlyChristchurch/JamesEdwardFitzgerald.aspChristchurch City Libraries entry on James FitzGerald; accessed 7 January 2010
7. ^ "LYTTELTON". Taranaki Herald: p. 3. Volume II, Issue 59, 14 September 1853. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
8. ^ "Saturday, August 13, 1853.". New Zealand Spectator and Cook's Strait Guardian: p. 2. Volume IX, Issue 838, 13 August 1853. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
9. ^ Wilson, John; Duncan Shaw-Brown (1991). Canterbury Provincial Council Buildings : Christchurch, New Zealand. Christchurch: Canterbury Regional Council.ISBN 1-86937-135-6.
10. ^ "CANTERBURY.". Daily Southern Cross. Volume XIV, Issue 1084, 17 November 1857. pp. 3. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
11. ^ Scholefield, Guy Hardy (1925) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand parliamentary record. Wellington: Govt. Printer. pp. 92–93.
12. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906)."Former Members Of The House Of Representatives". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 21 July 2010.
13. ^ "Details for FITZGERALD James Edward". Friends of Bolton Street Memorial Park. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
14. ^ "Memorial Trail". Bolton Street Memorial Park. Retrieved 26 May 2010.

Octave Mannoni

Dominique-Octave Mannoni was a French psychoanalyst and author. After spending more than twenty years in Madagascar, Mannoni returned to France after World War II where he, inspired by Lacan, published several psychoanalytic books and articles. Arguably his most well-known work, Prospero and Caliban: The Psychology of Colonization, deals with colonization and the psychology of the colonizer and the colonized. The book was later criticized by writers such as Frantz Fanon.
Octave Mannoni was the husband of Maud Mannoni.

Meliton Balanchivadze

Meliton Balanchivadze was a Georgian composer and one of the founders of Georgian classical music. His two sons, George Balanchine and Andria Balanchivadze, had illustrious careers, the former as a leading choreographer in the United States, and the latter as Soviet Georgia’s foremost classical composer.

Trained at the seminaries of Kutaisi and Tbilisi, he began an operatic career at the Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre in 1880. In 1882, he founded a Georgian folk ensemble and organized the first folk concert in Tbilisi the following year. From 1883 to 1886, he travelled to various parts of Georgia, collecting folk songs and training folk choirs. From 1889 to 1895, he studied at St. Petersburg Conservatory where one of his teachers was Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Between 1895 and 1917, he toured Russia giving concerts of Georgian folk music. After the 1917 Bolshevik coup, he returned to his native Georgia where he taught and composed. He is the author of the first Georgian opera Tamar the Wily (თამარ ცბიერი) which was first performed by Russian artists at the Hall of the Russian Nobility Council in 1897.

Anne de Vries

Anne de Vries was a Dutch teacher and author. In the Netherlands he became particularly famous for his novels. He was married to Alida Gerdina van Wermeskerken, the couple had five children. In 1972, de Vries got national recognition when his novel Bartje was made into a television series by Willy van Hemert. Bartje then became the symbol of the Dutch province Drenthe. De Vries wrote regional novels, most famously the coming-of-age novel "Bartje" and "Bartje seeks happiness". He also wrote Journey Through the Night, a children's book published in four volumes (first in 1951, last in 1958) about World War II. The books on Bartje can be considered Bildungsromans.

Joannes Eidesgaard

Jóannes Dan Eidesgaard is the Finance Minister of the Faroe Islands. He has held the position since 26 September 2008. He previously served as Prime Minister of the Faeroe Islands from 3 February 2004, shortly after the general election of 20 January 2004, until 26 September 2008, when a new coalition took office.

Life and Political Career

Jóannes Eidesgaard was born on 19 April 1951, in Tvøroyri on the island of Suðuroy, where he later became a senior-school teacher.

Eidesgaard was first elected to the Løgting, the Faroese parliament, in 1990. Between 1991 and 1996 he was a Minister under different coalition governments, and from 1994 to 1996 he became Deputy Prime Minister.

In 1996 Eidesgaard became Party Chairman of the Javnaðarflokkurin.

In 1998, up until 2001, Eidesgaard was one of the two Faroese delegates in the Parliament of Denmark.

On 3 February 2004 Jóannes Eidesgaard was elected Prime Minister and therefore became head of the government (Løgmaður) in the Faroe Islands. He led a coalition government between the Unionist Party,
the People’s Party and the Social Democratic Party.

After the 2008 elections, he led a centre-left separatist government consisting of his Social Democratic Party, the pro-independence Republic and the Centre Party.

In September the coalition burst, and a new coalition between Unionist Party, the People’s Party and the Social Democratic Party was re-established on 24 September. As a result of the ongoing debates about who should be the new Prime Minister, Jóannes Eidesgaard decided to step down as Prime Minister to allow Kaj Leo Johannesen of the Unionist Party to assume that office as a compromise. Kaj Leo Johannesen assumed the office on 26 September.

On 30 September 2008 shortly after making the 2009 Faroese budget public, Jóannes Eidesgaard was admitted to hospital after feeling chest pains.

Hugo Metsers II

Hugo Wilfried Maria Joseph Metsers ( Holly , 1 April 1943 ) is a Dutch actor . He is a son of textile manufacturer and painter Hugo Metsers (1902-1978) and brother of painter and sculptor Guido Metsers (1940).

Masons was mainly in the 70s fame with his role in the erotic movie Blue movie . Hugo Metsers gained international fame in the BRT AVRO television series on the book by Gerard Walschap "A Man of Good Will" as Thijs Glorious as the man who can see no wrong, and pays with his life. In the television Hollands Glorie (1977) he played the lead role (Jan Walker). He also played in the movies splashes , dear boys and Black Book and in the television series The Factory , Without Ernst and spilled the beans . In addition, he starred in many plays . He has also in the television series The Legend of the Bokkerijders had a major role.

Metsers is married to actress Pleuni Rope . From a previous marriage to actress Maartje Seyferth , he has two children, including actor Hugo Metsers (1968). Since his son, also an actor's career to follow are father and son in the publicity sometimes referred to as "Hugo Metsers II" and "Hugo Metsers III".

Henry Pilsbry

Henry Augustus Pilsbry was an American biologist, malacologist and carcinologist, among other areas of study. He was a dominant presence in many fields of invertebrate taxonomy for the better part of a century.[1][2] For much of his career, his authority with respect to the classification of certain substantial groups of organisms was unchallenged: barnacles,[3][4]chitons,[5][6] North American terrestrial mollusks,[7][8][9][10] and others.


Pilsbry (frequently misspelled Pilsbury) spent his childhood and youth in Iowa. He was called "Harry" Pilsbry then, and developed an early fascination with the limited variety of mollusks he was able to find. He attended the University of Iowa, and received the Bachelor of Science degree there in 1882, but did not immediately find employment in his field of interest. Instead, Henry Pilsbry worked for publishing firms and newspapers for the next several years, but devoted most of his spare time to the study of mollusks.

In 1887, he found employment in New York City as a proofreader, but soon met George Washington Tryon, the resident expert on mollusks at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and architect and author of the on-going multi-volume Manual of Concology. This meeting led, within a few months, to Tryon's hiring Pilsbry as an assistant. He was, no doubt, impressed by the young man's talents as a proofreader, considerable expertise in technical illustration, and especially by his undeniable enthusiasm for the study of mollusks and substantial knowledge of the subject.

Less than three months after Pilsbry began his new job, George Tryon died and his new assistant, only 25 years old, perhaps to the surprise of some, inherited the titles of "Conservator of the Conchology Section" and "Editor" of the Manual of Conchology.

Pilsbry soon proved capable of prodigious efforts, and his scientific output was remarkable. During the next five years he produced hundreds of detailed pages of the Manual of Conchology, preparing many of the plates himself, and founded The Nautilus, an influential journal of malacology which has survived into the 21st century.[11] He also married during this period, to Adeline Avery. His college, the University of Iowa, honored him with a Doctor of Science degree in 1899 (and he later received two other honorary doctorates: University of Pennsylvania, 1940, and Temple University, 1941).

For almost all of the next 57 years of his long life, Henry Pilsbry spent his hours writing scientific papers, over 3,000 of them, mostly while at the Academy of Natural Sciences. Most of his longest papers were published by the Academy. The shorter ones could usually be found in The Nautilus. The large majority of his work carried only his name, although there were sometimes joint or junior authors, some of whom were more patron than scientist. It is notable that Pilsbry did not always confine himself to the several areas of study with which he was already closely associated, but rather would sometimes stray into other fields of science, from geology and paleontology to the taxonomy of brachiopods.[12][13][14]

His field work provided a steady supply of new specimens for study, dissection, and illustration, and a seemingly endless array of new species to name. Pilsbry named 5680 organisms [15]; a full list was published in a 218-page volume.[16] Pilsbry performed extensive amounts of field work, and was clearly an expert in dealing with the outdoors, no matter the conditions. He collected mollusks over virtually the entire United States, and in an atlas of countries: Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Cocos Islands, Cuba, Galapagos Islands,Guatemala, Marquesas Islands, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and other locations as well. His intellectual reach extended even further, through joint efforts with other workers: especially notably Africa with Joseph Bequaert and the Japanese region with Yoichiro Hirase.

Pilsbry suffered a heart attack in late 1957 while working at the Philadelphia Academy. He seemed to recover from this serious occurrence, but died at his winter home in Florida, about a month and a half later, from a similar event.

Henry Augustus Pilsbry is buried in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, at St. Asaph's Church.


Manual of Conchology

Pilsbry was an assistant of George Washington Tryon for two years, from 1887 to 1888. After Tryon's death in 1888, Pilsbry became an editor of an ongoing multi-volume Manual of Conchology. He is credited (at title page) in Manual of Conchology since volume 12 from 1890.

Selected major works

Pilsbry H. A. (14 May 1889). "New and little known American mollusks, no. I." Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 41: 81-89, pl. 3.
Pilsbry H. A. (25 February 1890). "New and little known American mollusks, no. II." Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 41: 411-416, pl. 12.
Pilsbry H. A. 21 (October 1890). "New and little known American mollusks, no. 3." Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 42: 296-302, pl. 5.
Pilsbry H. A. (1895). Catalogue of the Marine Mollusks of Japan, with Descriptions of New Species, and Notes on Others Collected by Frederick Stearns. Detroit: F. Stearns. 196 p. [includes 30 species of modern brachiopods]
Pilsbry H. A. (1900). "Mollusca of the Great Smoky Mountains". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia52: 110-150.
Pilsbry H. A. (1900). "Note on Polynesian and East Indian Pupidae". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 52: 431-433.
Pilsbry H. A. (1902). "New land Mollusca from Japan and the Bonin Islands". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 54: 25-32.
Pilsbry H. A. (1902). "New land Mollusca from Idaho". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 54: 593.
Pilsbry, H. A., (1904). New Japanese marine Mollusca: Gastropoda. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 56
Pilsbry H. A. (1905). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States, I: Urocoptidae; Helicidae of Arizona and New Mexico". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 57: 211-290.
Pilsbry H. A. & Y. Hirase. (1905). "Catalogue of the Land and Fresh Water Molluscs of Taiwan (Formosa), with description of new species". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 57: 720-752.
Pilsbry H. A. (1907). "The Barnacles (Cirripedia) Contained in the Collections of the U.S. National Museum". Bul. United States National Museum 60. 122 p.
Pilsbry H. A. & Ferriss J. H. (1907). "Mollusca of the Ozarkian Fauna". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 58: 529-567.
Pilsbry H. A. & Ferriss J. H. (1910). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States, III: The Huachuca Mountains, Arizona". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 61: 495-516.
Pilsbry H. A. & Ferriss J. H. (1910). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States: IV. The Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 62: 44-147.
Pilsbry H. A. (1911). Non-marine mollusca of Patagonia. Princeton: The University.
Pilsbry H. A. (1912). "A study of the variation and zoogeography of Liguus in Florida". J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 15(2nd ser.): 429-471.
Pilsbry H. A. (1915). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States, VI: The Hacheta Grande, Florida, and Peloncillo Mountains, New Mexico". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 68: 323-350.
Pilsbry H. A. & Ferriss J. H. (1915). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States VII: The Dragoon, Mule, Santa Rita, Baboquivari, and Tucson Ranges, Arizona". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 68: 363-418.
Pilsbry H. A. (1916). "The Sessile Barnacles (Cirripedia) Contained in the Collections of the U.S. National Museum, including a monograph of the American species". Bul. United States National Museum 93: 366.
Pilsbry H. A. & Ferriss J. H. (1917). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States VIII: The Black Range, New Mexico". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 69: 83-107.
Pilsbry H. A. & Ferriss J. H. (1919). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States IX: The Santa Catalina, Rincon, Tortolita and Galiuro Mountains. X. The mountains of the Gila headwaters". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 282-333.
Pilsbry H. A. & Ferriss J. H. (1923). "Mollusca of the Southwestern States, XI - From the Tucson Range to Ajo, and mountain ranges between the San Padro and Santa Cruz rivers, Arizona". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia75: 47-103.
Pilsbry H. A. & Bequaert J. (1927). "The Aquatic Mollusks of the Belgian Congo. With a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53(2): 69-602. PDF.
Pilsbry H. A. (1934). "Zoological Results of the Dolan West China Expedition of 1931, Part II, Mollusks". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 86: 5-28.
Pilsbry H. A. (1939). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. I part 1. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 1-574.
Pilsbry H. A. (1940). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. I part 2. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 575-994.
Pilsbry H. A. (1946). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. II part 1. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 1-520.
Pilsbry H. A. (1948). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. II part 2. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 521-1113.
Pilsbry H. A. (1948). "Inland Mollusks of Northern Mexico. I. The genera Humboldtiana, Sonorella, Oreohelix and Ashmunella".Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 100: 185-203. JSTOR
Pilsbry H. A. (1953). "Inland Mollusca of Northern Mexico. II. Urocoptidae, Pupillidae, Strobilopsidae, Valloniidae, and Cionellidae".Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 105: 133-167. JSTOR


1. ^ Baker H. B. (1958). "Henry Augustus Pilsbry 1862-1957". The Nautilus 71(3): 73-83. (A major source for this biography).
2. ^ Abbott R. T. & M. E. Young M. E. (eds.) (1973). American Malacologists: A national register of professional and amateur malacologists and private shell collectors and biographies of early American mollusk workers born between 1618 and 1900. American Malacologists, Falls Church, Virginia. Consolidated/Drake Press: Philadelphia. 494 pp. ISBN 9780913792025
3. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1907). "The Barnacles (Cirripedia) Contained in the Collections of the U.S. National Museum". Bul. United States National Museum 60: p. 122.
4. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1916). "The Sessile Barnacles (Cirripedia) Contained in the Collections of the U.S. National Museum, including a monograph of the American species". Bul. United States National Museum 93: p. 366.
5. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1892). Manual of Conchology; structural and systematic. Vol. XIV. Polyplacophora (chitons). Lepidopleuridae, Ischnochitonidae, Chitonidae, Mopaliidae. Philadelphia. 350 pp.
6. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1893). Manual of Conchology; structural and systematic. Vol. XV. Polyplacophora, (chitons.) Acanthochitidae, Cryptoplacidae and appendix. Tectibranchiata. Philadelphia. 436 pp.
7. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1939). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. I part 1. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 1-574.
8. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1940). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. I part 2. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 575-994.
9. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1946). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. II part 1. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 1-520.
10. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1948). Land Mollusca of North America north of Mexico vol. II part 2. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. pp. 521-1113.
11. ^ Leal J. H. (2006). "Celebrating a long life: The Nautilus turns 120!" (PDF). Nautilus 120 (1): 1–7.
12. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1897). "Geology of the Mussel-bearing Clays of Fish-House, New Jersey". Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 48: 567-570.
13. ^ Pilsbry H. A. In: Wenner H. E. (1921). "Some Faunal Remains from the Triassic of York County, Pennsylvania. Mollusks". Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 73: 25-37.
14. ^ Pilsbry H. A. (1895). Catalogue of the Marine Mollusks of Japan, with Descriptions of New Species, and Notes on Others Collected byFrederick Stearns. Detroit: F. Stearns. 196 p. [includes 30 species of modern brachiopods].
15. ^ Florence A. Ruhoff (1973), Bibliography and Zoological Taxa of Paul Bartsch, Biographical Sketch by Harald A. Rehder, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 143
16. ^ Clench W. J. & Turner R. D. (1962). New names introduced by H. A. Pilsbry in the Mollusca and Crustacea. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Special Pub. No. 4. pp. 1–218.

Charles Edward Douglas

Charles (Charlie) Edward Douglas  came to be known as Mr. Explorer Douglas owing to his extensive explorations of the West Coast Region of New Zealand and his work for the New Zealand Survey Department. Charlie Douglas was awarded the Royal Geographical Society Gill Memorial Prize in 1897.

Charles Edward Douglas was born on 1 July 1840, in Edinburgh, Scotland, the youngest of six children, to parents Martha Brook and James Douglas. His father was an accountant with the Commercial Bank of Scotland. Charlie Douglas was educated at the Royal High School (Edinburgh) and worked at the accountant's office of the Commercial Bank of Scotland from 1857 to 1862. He emigrated to New Zealand, arriving in Port Chalmers in 1862.

For five years, Charlie Douglas worked at a variety of jobs, including working on a sheep run, and gold digging. He moved to Okarito, Westland in 1867.

For 40 years Douglas explored and surveyed the West Coast Region of New Zealand. He was described as heavily bearded and with a slight frame, standing about 5 feet 10 inches in height. He was accompanied throughout his years of exploration by a dog, first "Topsy", then "Betsey Jane" and others. During the colonial period of New Zealand, drowning in rivers was so commonplace before bridges had been built that it became known as the 'New Zealand death'. Douglas could not swim, and he once claimed that this fact "had saved his life many a time", implying that he would not enter rivers when it was risky.

When exploring Douglas carried little in the way of equipment beyond some basic provisions, including tobacco for his beloved pipe, and a swag. He camped beneath his two piece "batwing" tent of canvas or calico or crude rock shelters. He supplemented his food stocks by hunting native birds and living off the land. Although Douglas lived simply he supported himself by occasional work, supplemented by some infrequent provisions sent by his family in Scotland, who also supplied him with some of the books that he read avidly. He worked for a part-time wage from the survey department for 20 years before becoming a full-time employee from 1889.

Douglas was a quiet, shy man, who was noted for his keen, accurate and entertaining observations relating to flora, fauna (particularly birds) and geology in his journals, sketches, watercolors and survey reports. Later in his life he grew increasingly intolerant of tourists who were unwilling or unable to endure the hardships he experienced. Douglas condemned the changes to the natural landscape he saw occurring in Westland and he became increasingly embittered as old age and illness began to curtail his later explorations. When he was not exploring he was known to be a heavy drinker.

During this 20 year period, both Gerhard Mueller and George John Roberts attempted to employ Douglas full-time at the survey department, but he instead sent in voluntary reports and maps of the rugged Westland valleys that he tramped and explored and earned a part-time wage while exploring for the department.

In 1868, Douglas accompanied Julius von Haast on a month long expedition travelling down the West Coast, making stops and exploring at: Okarito, Bruce Bay, Paringa and Arnott's Point before returning to Okarito. It is probable that Douglas learned something of geology from Haast at this time because he used Haast's terminology in his later geological notes.

During 1874, Douglas met George Roberts and formed a friendship that was to lead to his growing involvement with the New Zealand Survey Department. Also in 1874, Douglas formed a partnership with Bob Ward and the two men bought 700 acres of land on the Paringa River and began cattle farming. The pair also operated a ferry service across the Paringa. Douglas gave up cattle farming after his partner, Ward, drowned in 1881. After his time as a cattle farmer, Douglas abandoned a settled life and began to tramp and explore Westland, picking up odd-jobs as he needed them.

From a base in Jackson Bay starting in the 1870s Douglas continued to explore the: Paringa River (1874–1877), Haast River (1880) andLandsborough River, Blue River (1881), Turnbull River (1882), Okuru River (1882) and associated passes the Actor and Maori (1883),Cascade River with Mueller (1883) and Arawhata River (1883), travelling with Mueller and Roberts on the "Reconnaissance Survey" fromJacksons Bay to Martin's Bay (1884).

In 1885, Douglas accompanied the chief surveyor, Gerhard Mueller, exploring the Arawhata River valley. Together, they traced one tributary of the Arawhata, the Williamson river to the Andy Glacier. The other branch, the Waipara River they traced to the Bonar glacier on the west slope of Mount Aspiring. During this journey they accomplished the summiting of 7,390 foot Mount Ionia.

In 1886, Douglas and G. T. Murray made a survey trip to the Northern Olivines.

During 1887, Douglas and Mueller made a "Reconnaissance Survey" of the Clarke River and the Landsborough River.

In 1887 and later in 1888, Charlie Douglas visited the Balfour Glacier near Mount Tasman and the Fox Glacier.

Douglas claims in his monograph on the birds of South Westland (c. 1899) that he shot and ate two raptors of immense size on theHaast River valley or Landsborough:

The expanse of wing of this bird will scarcely be believed. I shot two on the Haast, one was 8 feet 4 inches (2.54 m) from tip to tip, the other was 6 feet 9 inches (2.06 m), but with all their expanse of wing they have very little lifting power, as a large hawk can only lift a duck for a few feet, so no one need get up any of those legends about birds carrying babies out of cradles, as the eagle is accused of doing.

In light of Douglas' generally trustworthy, detailed observations and measurements as a surveyor, it has been hypothesised bypaleozoologist, Trevor H. Worthy, that the dead birds may have represented a biological relict or remnant of the otherwise extinct Haast's Eagle.

From 1889 Douglas agreed to work for the survey department full-time for a wage of eightshillings a day. He was provided with: a prismatic compass, a survey chain and drawing tools.

For five months, in 1891 Douglas travelled up the Waiatoto River. He climbed Mount Raganand reached the Therma Glacier at the head of the Waiatoto.

During 1892 Douglas made an important expedition up the Copland River. It was during the Copland trip that he experienced the first real illness of his 52 years. Later in the year he explored the Whitcombe River.

Between 1893 and 1895, Douglas was teamed with Arthur Paul Harper and the two first explored the Wanganui River in a dug-out canoe. They then explored the Franz Josef Glacier, Fox Glacier and in 1894 the area of the Cook River. It was in 1894 that rheumatismfirst began to force Douglas to curtail some of his exploration.

In 1896, Douglas returned to the Whitcombe River valley and crossed the Whitcombe Pass to the upper Rakaia.

In 1897, Douglas continued track work in the Whitcombe River. It was also in this year that he was awarded the Royal Geographical Society Gill Memorial Prize. He spent the prize money on a camera that he ended up giving away.

From 1898 through to 1899, Douglas worked on hut making and track cutting around the glaciers and along the Whitcombe River valley.

In 1900, Douglas made his last major expedition along the Wanganui River that included a trip to the Lord Range.

In 1901, Douglas explored the Otira River and from 1903 he explored the Okarito district. He increasingly suffered from from ill health.

From 1904 to 1906, Douglas continued to explore and survey for the department but was increasingly restricted by illness and old age. In 1906, while on holiday in Wataroa, Douglas met and was photographed with Richard Seddon, shortly before Seddon's death. Later in 1906 Douglas suffered his first stroke. He continued to explore for the department in 1907 and 1908 but his second stroke forced him to retire from the New Zealand Survey Department after 40 years of almost continual exploration of the West Coast Region.

Douglas spent much of his time from 1906 until 1916 being looked after by friends and the widow of his cattle ranching partner, Mrs. Ward. He was also in and out of hospital in 1911, 1914 and 1916. Douglas died, two months short of his 76th birthday, of a cerebral hemorrhage in the Westland Hospital on 23 May 1916.

Charlie Douglas was awarded the 1897 Royal Geographical Society Gill Memorial Prize for "persistent explorations during twenty-one years of the difficult region of forests and gorges on the western slopes of the New Zealand Alps".

Anatole France

Anatole France was a French poet, journalist, and novelist. He was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers. Ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. He was a member of the Académie française, and won the 1921 Nobel Prize in Literature.

The son of a bookseller, France spent most of his life around books and was a bibliophile. His father's bookstore, called the Librairie France, specialized in books and papers on the French Revolution and was frequented by many notable writers and scholars of the day. France studied at the Collège Stanislas, a private Catholic school, and after graduation he helped his father by working in his bookstore. After several years he secured the position of cataloguer at Bacheline-Deflorenne and at Lemerre. In 1876 he was appointed librarian for the French Senate.

Anatole France began his literary career as a poet and a journalist. In 1869, Le Parnasse Contemporain published one of his poems, La Part de Madeleine. In 1875, he sat on the committee which was in charge of the third Parnasse Contemporain compilation. As a journalist, from 1867, he wrote many articles and notices. He became famous with the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881). Its protagonist, skeptical old scholar Sylvester Bonnard, embodied France's own personality. The novel was praised for its elegant prose and won him a prize from the Académie française. In La Rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque (1893) Anatole France ridiculed belief in the occult; and in Les Opinions de Jérôme Coignard (1893), France captured the atmosphere of the fin de siècle. France was elected to the Académie française in 1896. Anatole France took an important part in the Dreyfus affair. He signed Émile Zola's manifesto supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer who had been falsely convicted of espionage. France wrote about the affair in his 1901 novel Monsieur Bergeret.

France's later works include L'Île des Pingouins (1908) which satirizes human nature by depicting the transformation of penguins into humans – after the animals have been baptized by mistake by the nearsighted Abbot Mael. It is a satirical history of France, starting in medieval times, going on to the writer's own time with special attention to the Dreyfus Affair and concluding with a dystopian future. Les dieux ont soif (1912) is a novel, set in Paris during the French Revolution, about a true-believing follower of Robespierre and his contribution to the bloody events of the Reign of Terror of 1793–94. It is a wake-up call against political and ideological fanaticism and explores various other philosophical approaches to the events of the time. La Revolte des Anges (1914) is often considered Anatole France's most profound novel. Loosely based on the Christian understanding of the War in Heaven, it tells the story of Arcade, the guardian angel of Maurice d'Esparvieu. Arcade falls in love, joins the revolutionary movement of angels, and towards the end realizes that the overthrow of God is meaningless unless "in ourselves and in ourselves alone we attack and destroy Ialdabaoth."

He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921. He died in 1924 and is buried in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community cemetery near Paris.

Stetson Kennedy

William Stetson Kennedy was an American author and human rights activist. One of the pioneer folklore collectors during the first half of the 20th century, he is remembered for having infiltrated the Ku Klux Klan in the 1940s, exposing its secrets to authorities and the outside world. His actions lead to the 1947 revocation by the state of Georgia of the Klan's national corporate charter.[1] Kennedy wrote or co-wrote ten books.

Biography and activities

Kennedy was named for a member of his mother's family, the hatter John Batterson Stetson.[1] As a teenager, he began collecting folklore material while seeking "a dollar down and dollar a week" accounts for his father, a furniture merchant. While a student at the University of Florida, Kennedy befriended one of his professors, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings.[2]

In 1937, he left the University of Florida to join the WPA Florida Writers' Project, and at the age of 21, was put in charge of folklore, oral history, and ethnic studies. As her supervisor, Kennedy traveled throughout Florida with African-American novelist and folklorist Zora Neale Hurston, visiting turpentine camps near Cross City and the Clara White Mission soup kitchen in Jacksonville. Hurston later chronicled these experiences in her book Mules and Men. The two were forced to travel separately because Jim Crow laws prohibited them from working together. Because of segregation laws operative in Florida at the time, "You could get killed lighting someone's cigarette", Kennedy told independent producer Barrett Golding. "Or shaking hands -- both colors, white and black."[3] Hurston was not even allowed to enter the Federal Writers' Project office in Jacksonville through the front door and did most of her work from her home. Kennedy had a large hand in editing several volumes generated by the Florida project, including The WPA Guide to Florida: the Southernmost State (1939), from the famed WPA American Guide Series, A Guide to Key West, and The Florida Negro (part of a series directed by Sterling Brown). Kennedy also studied at New College for Social Research in New York and at the Sorbonne in Paris.[2]

Kennedy's first book, Palmetto Country, based on unused material collected during his WPA period, was published in 1942 as a volume in the American Folkways Series edited by Erskine Caldwell. Legendary folklorist Alan Lomax has said of the book, "I very much doubt that a better book about Florida folklife will ever be written." To which Kennedy's self-described "stud buddy", Woody Guthrie, added, "[Palmetto Country] gives me a better trip and taste and look and feel for Florida than I got in the forty-seven states I've actually been in body and tramped in boot." The Library of Congress has placed the recordings and pictures from the project online. Kennedy has been called "one of the pioneer folklore collectors during the first half of the 20th century", and his work is a keystone of the library's presentation.
In 1942 Kennedy accepted a position as Southeastern Editorial Director of the CIO's Political Action Committee in Atlanta, Georgia, in which capacity he wrote a series of monographs dealing with the poll tax, white primaries, and other restrictions on voting that delimited democracy throughout the South. Kept from military service by a bad back, Kennedy resolved to perform his patriotic duties in Georgia by infiltrating both the Klan and the Columbians,[4] an Atlanta-based neo-Nazi organization.[5]

After World War II, Kennedy worked as a journalist for the liberal newspaper PM. His stories appeared in newspapers and magazines such as the New York Post and The Nation, for which he was for a time Southern correspondent, and he fed information about discrimination to columnist Drew Pearson. To bring the effects of Jim Crow in the South to public awareness, he authored a number exposés of the Klan and racist Jim Crow system over the course of his life, including Southern Exposure (1946), Jim Crow Guide to the USA (1959), and After Appomattox: How the South Won the War (1995). During the 1950s, Kennedy's books, considered too incendiary to be published in the USA, were published in France by the existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre[6] and subsequently translated into other languages. Kennedy coined the term "Frown Power",[7] when he started a campaign with that name in the 1940s, which simply encouraged people to pointedly frown when they heard bigoted speech.

In 1947, Kennedy provided information - including secret codewords and details of Klan rituals - to the writers of the Superman radio program, leading popular journalist Stephen J. Dubner and University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt, in their 2005 book Freakonomics, to dub Kennedy "the greatest single contributor to the weakening of the Ku Klux Klan".[8] The result was a series of 16 episodes in which Superman took on the Klan. Kennedy intended to strip away the Klan's mystique; and the trivialization of the Klan's rituals and codewords likely had a negative impact on Klan recruiting and membership.[9]

In 1952, when Kennedy ran for governor of Florida, his friend and houseguest Woody Guthrie wrote a set of lyrics for a campaign song, "Stetson Kennedy".[10] Kennedy says he became "the most hated man in Florida", and his home at Fruit Cove near Lake Beluthahatchee was firebombed by rightists and many of his papers destroyed, causing him to leave the country and go to live in France. There, in 1954, Kennedy wrote his sensational exposé of the workings of the Klan, I Rode With The Ku Klux Klan (later reissued as The Klan Unmasked), which was published by Jean-Paul Sartre. Questioned in later years about the accuracy of his account, Kennedy later said he regretted not having included an explanatory introduction to the book about how the information in it was obtained.[11] The director of the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress Peggy Bulger, the subject of whose doctoral thesis was Kennedy's work as a folklorist, commented in a 2007 interview with The Associated Press, "Exposing their folklore – all their secret handshakes, passwords and how silly they were, dressing up in white sheets ... If they weren't so violent, they would be silly."[1]

A founding member and past president of the Florida Folklore Society, Kennedy was a recipient of the 1998 Florida Folk Heritage Award and the Florida Governor's Heartland Award. His contribution to the preservation and propagation of folk culture is the subject of a dissertation, "Stetson Kennedy: Applied Folklore and Cultural Advocacy" (University of Pennsylvania, 1992), by Peggy Bulger, who assumed the directorship of the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress in 1999. Kennedy is also featured as one of the "Whistle Blowers", in Studs Terkel's book Coming of Age, published in 1995.

In 2005, Jacksonville residents attended a banquet in honor of Kennedy's life, and afterward a slide show with narration at Henrietta's Restaurant, located at 9th and Main Street in Springfield. This event was largely coordinated by Fresh Ministries. The slides included numerous pictures of his travels with author Zora Neale Hurston, and direct voice recordings which were later digitized for preservation.

In 2006, on November 24, the ninety-year-old Kennedy was wed to former city commissioner Sandra Parks at a Quaker-style ceremony at the William Bartram Center on the Bolles School in Jacksonville, Florida.[12] Parks and Kennedy met when she came to Beluthahatchee to recruit him for the 40th anniversary observance of the St. Augustine civil rights marches which he participated in with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Kennedy, who admits to at least five previous marriages, commented, "I’ll leave it to the historians to decide how many times I’ve been married."[13]
In 2007 St. Johns County declared a "Stetson Kennedy Day".[14]

Kennedy participated in the two-day New Deal Resources: Preserving the Legacy conference at the Library of Congress on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the New Deal held in March 2008.[15] Kennedy's most recent book, Grits and Grunts: Folkloric Key West, was issued by the Pineapple Press, in 2008.

In February 2009, Kennedy bequeathed his personal library to the Civic Media Center in Gainesville, Florida with which Kennedy had worked since the center's inception.[16]

In October 2009, a first party for Kennedy's 93rd birthday was held at the Civic Media Center and the next day admirers flocked to Beluthahatchee Park, now a landmarked historic site, to celebrate Kennedy's birthday there.[17]
Beluthahatchee Park

In 2003, Friends of Libraries USA put Beluthahatchee on its national register of literary sites and, to commemorate the occasion, Arlo Guthrie gave a concert in Jacksonville.[18]

In 2005 Kennedy received a life estate on his 4 acre homestead in Saint Johns County, and it is now Beluthahatchee Park.[19]

The name "Beluthahatchee" describes a mythical "Florida Shangri-la, where all unpleasantness is forgiven and forgotten" according to Zora Neale Hurston.[20]

Among the amenities are a picnic pavilion, canoe dock, access to the Beluthatchee Lake, and use of the two wildlife observation platforms. A “Mother Earth Trail” throughout the property is planned, as envisioned by the Kennedy Foundation. The Park’s perimeter is surrounded by a heavy canopy of native vegetation and the enclave provides a habitat for wildlife and continues to serve as a rookery and roosting place for many types of waterfowl and other birds.
Kennedy’s home will, upon his death, be open as a museum and archive and offer educational exhibits and whatnot, primarily about Woody Guthrie and William Bartram in addition to Kennedy himself, and will be operated by the Kennedy Foundation which will share office space in an adjacent home with the William Bartram Scenic and Historic Highway corridor group. A log cabin that's in the park may serve as a caretaker residence while the fourth building there may house an Artist-in-Residence through the Florida Folklife program.[21]

The park is part of a 70 acre tract that Kennedy purchased in 1948, recorded restrictive covenants setting aside land in perpetuity as a wildlife refuge, and the following year subdivided, subsequently selling all but his own 4 acre parcel.[19]
Critical assessments from his peers

In 1999, a freelance historian, Ben Green, alleged that Kennedy falsified or misrepresented portions of I Rode With The Ku Klux Klan. During the 1990s, Green had enlisted Kennedy's help while researching a book about the still unsolved 1951 Florida fire-bombing murders of black Civil Rights activists Harry T. Moore and his wife Harriette. Green's book about the Moores, Freedom Never Dies, was published in 1999. Green and Kennedy, quarreled over what Kennedy considered Green's too sympathetic portrayal of the FBI. Green, whose book is generally disparaging of Kennedy, claimed to have examined Kennedy's archives at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem and in Atlanta and concluded that a number of interviews, portrayed in I Rode With The Ku Klux Klan as having been conducted undercover, had in fact been done openly, and that racist material amassed by Kennedy had also been openly obtained from mail subscriptions to the Klan and similar groups and not surreptitiously, as implied. Most seriously, Green accused Kennedy of concealing the existence of a collaborator, referred to as "John Brown" (a pseudonym probably chosen in honor of the 19th-century abolitionist John Brown), whom Green alleged was in fact responsible for the most daring of Kennedy's undercover revelations. Green also interviewed Georgia State Prosecutor Dan Duke, whom he reported as denying having worked with Kennedy as closely the latter had claimed. "Duke agreed that Kennedy 'got inside of some [Klan] meetings' but openly disputed Kennedy's dramatized account of their relationship. 'None of that happened,' [Duke] told Green", according to Stephen J. Dubner and Steven D. Levitt in their New York Times Magazine column of January 8, 2006.[22] In the same column, Levitt and Dubner also quote Jim Clark, a professor at the University of Central Florida and co-author of a PBS television documentary based on Green's book, as saying that "[Kennedy] built a national reputation on many things that didn't happen". Jim Clark and Ben Green collaborated on the script of Freedom Never Dies: The Story of Harry T. Moore,[23] based on Green's book and partially funded by the Freedom Forum.[24] Peggy Bulger, on the other hand, stated that when she interviewed him: "[Sheriff] Duke laughed about the way The Klan Unmasked was written. But he added that Kennedy 'didn't do it all, but he did plenty,' she said. In a letter to Kennedy dated July 27, 1946, Georgia Gov. Ellis Arnall wrote: 'You have my permission to quote me as making the following observation: Documentary evidence uncovered by Stetson Kennedy has facilitated Georgia's prosecution of the Ku Klux Klan.'"[11]

Freakonomics authors Dubner and Levitt had included a favorable summary of Kennedy's anti-Klan activities with special emphasis on the events recounted in I Rode with the Ku Klux Klan in the 2005 edition of their bestselling book. In the revised 2006 edition, after being contacted by Green, they retracted their earlier admiration, claiming that they had been "hoodwinked".[22] The allegations in their retraction were swiftly repeated by the business journal Forbes in a review of the revised edition of Freakonomics: "It turns out that Kennedy doesn't quite live up to his own legend. In fact, he had exaggerated his story for decades and credited himself with actions taken by other people".
Green's insinuations are contested by scholars, who emphasize that Kennedy never concealed that he had protected his colleagues' identities and maintain that Green either misread or did not really read the material at the Schomburg Center. Peggy Bulger, the head of the American Folklife Division of the Library of Congress, who wrote her Ph. D. dissertation on Kennedy and interviewed him extensively, maintains that Kennedy was always candid with her and others about his combination of two narratives into one in I Rode With the Ku Klux Klan: "His purpose was to expose the Klan to a broad reading audience and use their folklore against them, which he did." In a letter to the editor of New York Times Magazine (published on January 22, 2006) Bulger accused Dubner and Levitt of "holding Stetson Kennedy responsible for the inadequacies of their own research":

It's preposterous. I have worked with Stetson Kennedy for more than 30 years, conducting almost 100 in-depth interviews with both Kennedy and his contemporaries. Your writers use one footnote from my dissertation as "evidence," yet Dubner admitted to me that they never read the whole thing. This is "data"? What is the smoking gun here?[25]

In the same issue of the magazine a letter of protest from famed oral historian Studs Terkel affirms that "With half a dozen Stetson Kennedys, we can transform our society into one of truth, grace and beauty.... The thing is, Stetson did what he set out to do .... He did get help. He should have been much more up-front. But he certainly doesn't deserve this treatment".

In his own response (published in the Jacksonville, Florida Folio Weekly, January 27, 2006) Kennedy pulled no punches:
The hidden story behind these hidden story guys is that is was a put-up, hatchet job. Freakonomics co-author, Stephen Dubner, admitted to me that it was Ben Green, author of the book about the Harry T. Moore assassinations, who made the call. And, why would he have it in for me? We once had a contract to collaborate on the Moore book and split the byline; but instead we split, because I was convinced that lawmen at every level were involved in every phase of the murders, while he was bent not just upon whitewash but on praising the G-men for a "stellar performance".
I must say that I am not at all comfortable about being in Freakonomics, anyway. I took the authors into my home on the basis of their assertion that what they were after was the economics of the Klan. The next thing I knew, they sent me a pre-publication copy of their sketch of Klan history, and I was horrified to see that it was a rehash of the Klan's very own "Birth of A Nation" version. I did some detailed editing, but they chose to ignore it — just as they did all the documentation I gave them on my infiltration of Klans all over the South, all by my lonesome.

I trust that readers took note of the book's attack upon Head Start, which with all its faults, is a godsend to many. Still worse is the book's suggestion that the way to decrease the crime rate is to decrease the black birthrate via abortion. Without reference to what American does to its black and tan kids, that is sheer racism. There is too much evil going on in the world for me, going on 90, to take time out to haggle with anyone about which agent covered which Klan meeting 50 years ago.[26]

In 2006, The Florida Times-Union, after extensive research, published an article "KKK Book Stands Up to Claim of Falsehood" (January 29, 2006) substantiating the general accuracy of Kennedy's account of infiltrating the Klan, while acknowledging that (as he himself never denied) he had made use of dramatic effects and multiple narratives in the book I Rode with the Ku Klux Klan.

David Pilgrim of the Jim Crow Museum at Ferris State University commented:
Green claimed, after months of readings Kennedy's field notes, that he was unable to substantiate many of the claims in The Klan Unmasked. He even insinuated that Kennedy had fabricated his true role. Kennedy, in his 90s, fought to salvage his reputation and protect his legacy. He acknowledges that some accounts in his books were actually derived from the actions of co-infiltrators or others sympathetic with undermining the Klan. Though I recognize the importance of integrity in a person's work, I am nevertheless not especially troubled if Southern Exposure or The Klan Unmasked includes accounts from others afraid to speak for themselves. Nor am I bothered that Kennedy embellished his role. Infiltrating the Klan was an act of great courage, and the information in the books and on the radio shows led to the arrests of some Klansmen, the derailing of domestic terrorist acts, and the unpopularity of the Klan organization. That is good enough for me. I encourage readers to watch this short video [(no longer) on Youtube] which chronicles the life and work of Kennedy.

The Jim Crow Museum staff periodically trains docents to work in the facility. When I facilitate this training I have the students read Kennedy's book, Jim Crow Guide: The Way It Was (1959). The book is a mock guide dripping with bitter sarcasm; nevertheless, it is a historically sound account of life under Jim Crow segregation.

Death and Memorials

Kennedy died on August 27, 2011 at Baptist Medical Center South in Jacksonville, Florida, where he had been in palliative care for several days.[27]

Kennedy's stated wishes were that upon his death there be a party held rather than a funeral; therefore, a celebration of Kennedy's life was held on October 1, 2011 (four days before Kennedy's 95th birthday) at Kennedy's homestead, Beluthahatchee Park.[28] Several hundred kin, friends, and admirers gathered for the events which commenced with an hour of music performed by many well-known artists of pieces among which were several written by Kennedy’s friend Woody Guthrie, who composed many songs at Beluthahatchee, including a number about Kennedy, e.g., "Beluthahatchee Bill". The music culminated with all present singing Guthrie’s "This Land Is Your Land", which was followed by an hour of eulogies. Then all present walked down to Lake Beluthahatchee and watched as Kennedy’s ashes were scattered thereon from a canoe by his daughter.[29]


^ a b c "Author Stetson Kennedy, whose writings exposed the KKK.s workings in the 1940s, dies at 94". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
^ a b "Florida author, known for infiltrating Klan, dies". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
^ Stetson Kennedy, interviewed February 2002 by Barrett Golding on "The Sound of 1930s Florida Folk Life" on National Public Radio.
^ "New Georgia Encyclopedia: Columbians. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
^ "Stetson Kennedy" entry in New Georgia Encyclopedia.
^ "Hospital trying to make Kennedy comfortable". Historic City news. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
^ Frown Pow'r, a garage-rock band based out of Little Rock, Arkansas, borrowed their name from Stetson Kennedy's famous anti-bigotry movement.
^ An entire chapter of Freakonomics is devoted to the "contrarian" thesis that in the 20th century the Ku Klux Klan was not as violent as it had formerly been and, in fact, had acted paradoxically as a stabilizing influence on race relations in the American South.
^ In August 2008, Penn Jillette described Kennedy's part in the story of how "Superman came very close to destroying the Ku Klux Klan". See "Penn Says: Superman and the KKK". Retrieved 2008-10-16.
^ The song was later set to music by Billy Bragg and recorded by Bragg and Jeff Tweedy's band Wilco on the album Mermaid Avenue Vol. II.
^ a b Patton, Charlie. (January 29, 2006.) "KKK Book Stands Up to Claim of Falsehood". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
^ "Stetson Kennedy Official Website — Kennedy, Parks Wed In Weekend Ceremony – From the St. Augustine Record – November 29, 2006", Retrieved 2011-10-11
^ "Kennedy lived to be 94 years-old". Historic City News. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
^ "Legacy of social justice". St Augustine Record. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
^ Selections of the conference are available for viewing online on a Library of Congress webcast.
^ "CMC opens new locale; will be given author's collection". Gainesville.com. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
^ Bridget Murphy. (October 5, 2009.) "Admirers flock to Stetson Kennedy's 93rd birthday: he can't prove he's made a difference, but he can prove he's made friends, he said." The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
^ "The Orlando Sentinel — Klan buster Stetson Kennedy left legendary Florida legacy", Retrieved 2011-10-11
^ a b "Saint John's County — Beluthahatchee Park", Retrieved 2011-08-04
^ "Florida Historical Markers Programs - Marker: St. Johns", Retrieved 2011-08-29
^ "Florida Folklife Program". Florida Division of Historical Resources. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
^ a b Dubner, Stephen J. and Steven D. Levitt. (January 8, 2006.) "Hoodwinked?". The New York Times. Retrieved on August 29, 2011.
^ production credits for Freedom Never Dies: The Story of Harry T. Moore
^ Freedom Never Dies: The Story of Harry T. Moore
^ Bulger, Peggy A.. "Hoodwinked?". letter to the editor, New York Times Magazine.
^ Stetson Kennedy's response is reproduced on the website of the Association for Cultural Equity.
^ (August 27, 2011.) "Jacksonville author, civil rights activist Stetson Kennedy dead at 95. The Florida Times Union. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
^ "Stetson Kennedy October 5th 1916 - August 27th 2011". Stetson Kennedy's Official Website. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
^ "The Florida Times Union — Stetson Kennedy's life celebrated at Beluthahatchee", Retrieved 2011-10-11

Jacob Bongertman

Jacob Bongertman ( Leeuwarden 1879 - Haarlem, 1965) was a Dutch gym teacher, a swimming method developed in the 20s of the twentieth century .


After an initial career as a professional soldier Bongertman was a 1909 gymnastics teacher in Haarlem. He specialized in the classroom zwemonderwijs soon.


At the time they learned to swim the 'rod', which was an individual instruction and therefore less suitable for school education. Bongertman came upon the idea of a cylindrical sleeve design, with an air content of 10 liters, with a strap on the back of the pupil was confirmed.

With the same propellant or a cork board or in the hands he could become a floating classroom children and give swimming lessons. The air content of the bus was sufficient for the loss of buoyancy, because the head is above water, to compensate.


Before going into the water, was given to the students in a bank in a short lesson, get educated and have essentially the kick . Until then they learned to work the rod method in a three-contact movement: withdrawal - spread out - connect (1, 2, 3). Bongertman let the leg work to do in a two-socket movement: withdraw - folding (1, 2). The intention was to hit as a continuous movement. He called this the whip.

The method can be briefly summarized:
Understanding the impact exercise on the couch.
The natural stroke is a two-contact movement.
Water learn to drive the buses.
The battle then run with the help of flotation devices.
The student drives and feels that he moves forward (swim).
After the kick follows education with the leeway there.
The pupil mastered the breaststroke enough, it follows rugzwemmen the same principle.


The method was then groundbreaking and is used for half a century and propagated by the KNZB . Bongertman was a member of their merit. His motto was' swimming float and move around without power. "

Sources and references:

M. Boon: "It zwemonderwijs', ed. Nijgh & Van Ditmar, The Hague, 9th Edition 1965
"Brief summary of the history of swimming ', see www.maastrichtsereddingsbrigade.nl