17 June, 2012

W.H. Auden



Wystan Hugh Auden, who published as W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, born in England, later an American citizen, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. His work is noted for its stylistic and technical achievements, its engagement with moral and political issues, and its variety of tone, form and content. The central themes of his poetry are love, politics and citizenship, religion and morals, and the relationship between unique human beings and the anonymous, impersonal world of nature.

Auden grew up around Birmingham in a professional middle class family and read English literature at Christ Church, Oxford. His early poems, written in the late 1920s and early 1930s, alternated between telegraphic modern styles and fluent traditional ones, were written in an intense and dramatic tone, and established his reputation as a left-wing political poet and prophet. He became uncomfortable in this role in the later 1930s, and abandoned it after he moved to the United States in 1939, where he became an American citizen in 1946. His poems in the 1940s explored religious and ethical themes in a less dramatic manner than his earlier works, but still combined traditional forms and styles with new forms devised by Auden himself. In the 1950s and 1960s many of his poems focused on the ways in which words revealed and concealed emotions, and he took a particular interest in writing opera librettos, a form ideally suited to direct expression of strong feelings.

He was also a prolific writer of prose essays and reviews on literary, political, psychological and religious subjects, and he worked at various times on documentary films, poetic plays and other forms of performance. Throughout his career he was both controversial and influential. After his death, some of his poems, notably "Funeral Blues" ("Stop all the clocks") and "September 1, 1939", became widely known through films, broadcasts and popular media.

Harry Partch


Harry Partch was an American composer and instrument creator. He was one of the first twentieth-century composers to work extensively and systematically with microtonal scales, writing much of his music for custom-made instruments that he built himself.

Louis Jouvet



Louis Jouvet was a renowned French actor, director, and theatre director.

Overcoming speech impediments and sometimes paralyzing stage fright as a young man, Jouvet's first important association was with Jacques Copeau's Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier, beginning in 1913. Copeau's training included a varied and demanding schedule, regular exercise for agility and stamina, and pressing his cast and crew to invent theatrical effects in a bare-bones space. It was there Jouvet developed his considerable stagecraft skills, particularly makeup and lighting (he developed a kind of accent light named the jouvet). These years included a successful tour to the United States.

While influential, Copeau's theater was never lucrative. Jouvet left in October 1922 for the Comédie des Champs-Élysées (the small stage of the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées). In December 1923 he staged his single most successful production, the satire Dr. Knock, written by Jules Romains. Jouvet's meticulous characterization of the manipulative crank doctor was informed by his own experience in pharmacy school. It became his signature and his standby; "Jouvet was to produce it almost every year until the end of his life".

Jouvet began an ongoing close collaboration with playwright Jean Giraudoux in 1928, with a radical streamlining of Giraudoux's 1922 Siegfried et le Limousin for the stage. Their work together included the first staging of The Madwoman of Chaillot in 1945, at the Théâtre de l'Athénée, where Jouvet served as director from 1934 through his death in 1951.

Jouvet starred in some 34 films, including two records of Dr. Knock, once in 1933 and again in 1951. He was professor at the French National Academy of Dramatic Arts. He had a heart attack while at his beloved Théâtre de l'Athénée and died in his dressing room on Thursday, August 16, 1951. Louis Jouvet is buried in the Montmartre Cemetery in Paris. The Athénée theatre now bears his name.

Jean Malaquais



Jean Malaquais (1908 - December 22, 1998) was a French novelist.

He was born as Wladimir Malacki in Warsaw in 1908 of a non-religious Polish family of Jewish descent. In 1926, he left Poland, traveling in Eastern Europe and the Middle East; he wrote: "I had the feeling that the end of the world was approaching in Poland, so I wanted to discover the life of other lands before it disappeared entirely. Morally and intellectually I was a tramp, a companion of the dispossessed." He settled in France, where he worked as a laborer, and adopted the name of Jean Malaquais (which he took from the Quai Malaquais). He was associated with, though not formally a member of, several French leftist organizations, including the Trotskyist Communist League, and during the Spanish Civil War he joined the Republican forces as a member of the militia columns of the left Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). He obtained the Prix Renaudot in 1939 for his novel Les Javanais, based on his experience as an immigrant mine worker in Provence; it was admired by André Gide, who made Malaquais his private secretary.

At the beginning of World War II, he was conscripted into the French army, though not a French citizen. He was captured by the Germans, but managed to escape, and fled to southern France. In 1943, he succeeded in leaving France with the assistance of Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee bound for Mexico, and, eventually the United States, where he became a naturalised citizen; his parents died in Nazi concentration camps. He returned to France in 1947, but left again for the United States in 1948. (Beginning in 1942 and continuing after the war, he was a member of the Left Communist group Gauche communiste de France; in the United States, he was loosely affiliated with a number of non-Communist left groups.) His most famous work, about an international group of exiles in Vichy France, was Planète sans visa (1947), which has been translated into many languages.

Paul Poiret


Paul Poiret was a French fashion designer. His contributions to twentieth-century fashion have been likened to Picasso's contributions to twentieth-century art.

Phillippe Beaussant



Philippe Beaussant is a French musicologist and novelist, an expert on French baroque music, on which he has published widely. He is the founder of the Centre de Musique Baroque de Versailles, of which he was the artistic adviser of 1987 to 1996. He has also been a producer of musical programs for Radio France since 1974. His biography of Jean-Baptiste Lully, Lully ou le musicien du soleil (Éditions Gallimard, 1992), was the basis of the film Le Roi Danse (2000).

Beaussant won the 1993 Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française for his novel Héloïse.

Heimito von Doderer



Heimito von Doderer was a famous Austrian writer.

Heimito von Doderer was born near Vienna in 1896, son of the architect and engineer Wilhelm Carl von Doderer and his wife Wilhelmine von Hügel as the youngest of 6 children. His unusual first name was based on an attempt to germanicize the Spanish name "Jaimito", a diminutive of "Jaime" (James).

His life was spent mostly in Vienna, the longest exception being a period as a Russian prisoner of war in Siberia from 1916 until his eventual return to Austria in 1920. It was during his time in Russia that he decided to become a writer. His first published work, a book of poems Gassen und Landschaft, appeared in 1923, followed by the novel Die Bresche the following year, both with little success. A further novel, Das Geheimnis des Reichs, followed in 1930. In the same year he married Gusti Hasterlik, but they separated two years later and were divorced in 1938.

In 1933 Doderer joined the Austrian section of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) and published several stories in the Deutschösterreichische Tages-Zeitung ("German-Austrian Journal"), a newspaper closely linked to the party and propagating racism and the unification of Germany and Austria. In 1936 he moved to Dachau (Germany), where he met his future second wife, Emma Maria Thoma (although they were not to marry until 1952). In Germany, he renewed his NSDAP-membership (the Austrian Nazi Party had been banned since 1933). He returned to Vienna in 1938, sharing a flat with the celebrated painter Albert Paris Gütersloh. In that year the novel Ein Mord, den jeder begeht was published. He converted to Catholicism in 1940 as a result of his reading of Thomas Aquinas and his alienation from the Nazis, which had been growing for some years. Also in 1940, Doderer was called up to the Wehrmacht and was later posted to France, where he began work on his most celebrated novel Die Strudlhofstiege. Due to ill health, he was allowed in 1943 to return from the front, serving in the Vienna area, before a final posting to Oslo at the end of the war.

After his return to Austria in early 1946, he was banned from publishing. This ban was lifted in 1947. He continued work on Die Strudlhofstiege, but although he completed it in 1948, the still-obscure author was unable to get it published immediately. However when it did finally appear in 1951 it was a huge success, and its author's place in the post-war Austrian literary scene was assured. After this Doderer returned to an earlier, unfinished project, Die Dämonen, which appeared in 1956 to much acclaim. In 1958 he began work on what was intended to be a four-volume novel under the general title of "Novel No. 7", to be written as a counterpart to Beethoven's Seventh Symphony. The first volume Die Wasserfälle von Slunj, appeared in 1963; the second volume, Der Grenzwald, was to be his last work and was published, incomplete and posthumously, in 1967.

Doderer died of intestinal cancer on 23 December 1966.

Sacha Guitry


Alexandre-Pierre Georges "Sacha" Guitry was a French stage actor, film actor, director, screenwriter, and playwright of the Boulevard theatre.

Dr. Josef Allen Hynek


Dr. Josef Allen Hynek was a United States astronomer, professor, and ufologist. He is perhaps best remembered for his UFO research. Hynek acted as scientific adviser to UFO studies undertaken by the U.S. Air Force under three consecutive names: Project Sign (1947–1949), Project Grudge (1949–1952), and Project Blue Book (1952 to 1969). For decades afterwards, he conducted his own independent UFO research, developing the Close Encounter classification system, and is widely considered the father of the concept of scientific analysis of both reports and, especially, trace evidence purportedly left by UFOs.

Claude Brosset




Claude Brosset  was a French actor.

Claude Brosset is known for his supporting roles in film and television films French.
It is aimed at early acting career. A graduate of the Drama Centre in the Rue Blanche and the National Conservatory of Dramatic Art, where he was a student of the Fernand Ledoux , he won the 1st prize for comedy classic, 1st prize of modern comedy and the 2nd prize of tragedy.
At 20, he played his first role in the soap opera The Merry Wives of Windsor of Lazarus Iglesis . It will then play in more than one hundred films for cinema and television, including police officers Jean-Paul Belmondo , he was a friend.
Claude Brosset is one of the few comedians to have been able to juggle a career in film and on television. In the early 1990s , he became owner of a restaurant called "Le Cyrano" in Carcassonne , a town he had discovered by Philippe Noiret and Pierre Richard .

On the small screen, he took part in the adventures of the first major sagas like The cursed kings in 1972 , seed of nettle in 1973 , no family in 1983 , Hope River in 1993 . He plays with his friend Sylvain Joubert , in Ardèche faithful heart in 1974 and Grevèche Felicien in 1986 .

He tries to comedies in the Carapate , The Cops , he plays roles against type, alongside Jean Yanne in Gotcha, you hold me by the beard , Cayenne Palace and The Raft of the Medusa .
He moved to Ermont in the neighborhood of Callais, a residential area.

Must face the French cinema, he had what is known in the trade "a mug". It turns especially with Didier Bourdon and Bernard Campan , ( The Unknown ), in the Magi or with Jean Dujardin in OSS 117: Cairo, Nest of Spies . His last role was a character in the subsequent Minister VS Tavarès Gomez .
It was also a theater actor who had played Falstaff Festival of Angers .

He died on 25 June 2007 , at the hospital of Pontoise , the consequences of a cancer . He is buried in Pere Lachaise cemetery in Paris .

Vagn Holmboe



Vagn Gylding Holmboe was a Danish composer and teacher who wrote largely in a neo-classical style.

At the age of 16, Holmboe began formal music training at the Royal Danish Academy of Music in Copenhagen on the recommendation of Carl Nielsen. He studied under Knud Jeppesen (Theory) and Finn Høffding (Composition). After finishing his studies in 1929 he moved to Berlin where, for a short period, Ernst Toch became his teacher.

In 1933, he married the Romanian pianist Meta Graf. After moving back to Denmark in 1934, he taught at various institutions, including the Royal Conservatory in Copenhagen from 1950 to 1965.

Jacques Perret


Jacques Perret was a French writer best known for his novel Le Caporal Épinglé (1947), which tells the story of his captivity in Germany and of his escape attempts. This novel would later be adapted into a film by famous French director Jean Renoir in 1962. Perret was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Story for the film The Sheep Has Five Legs (1954).

Arne Jacobsen


Arne Emil Jacobsen, usually known as Arne Jacobsen, was a Danish architect and designer. He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the worldwide success he enjoyed with simple but effective chair designs.

Antonio-Ruiz Pipo


Antonio Ruiz-Pipò was a composer born in Granada, Spain, in 1934, and died in Paris, France in 1997.

The virtuoso pianist and composer Antonio Ruiz Pipó was born in Granada. He studied the piano with Alicia de Larrocha and composition with Salvador Bacarisse and others. The latter part of his productive life was spent in France where, in addition to pursuing his performing career, he taught at the École Normale de Musique and the Conservatoire de Musique in Paris. In his youth he played the guitar a little and this provided him with a working knowledge of the instrument, for which he wrote numerous works. His music is consistently tonal, his treatment and harmonization of his thematic material (often deceptively simple-sounding) is sophisticated, and he revels in sharp contrasts of mood and color.

George Reisner



George Andrew Reisner was an American archaeologist of Ancient Egypt. He also served as the head football coach at Purdue University, coaching for one season in 1889 and compiling a record of 2–1.

He was born in Indianapolis, Indiana and died in Giza, Egypt. Upon his studies at Jebel Barkal (The Holy Mountain), in Nubia he found the Nubian kings were not buried in the pyramids but outside of them. He also found the skull of a Nubian female (who he thought was a king) which is in the collection of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard. Reisner believed that Kerma was originally the base of an Egyptian governor and that these Egyptian rulers evolved into the independent monarchs of Kerma. He also created a list of Egyptian viceroys of Kush. He found the tomb of Queen Hetepheres the mother of King Khufu (Cheops in Greek) who built the Great Pyramid at Giza. During this time he also explored mastabas.

Bernard Herrmann



Bernard Herrmann was an American composer noted for his work in motion pictures.

An Academy Award-winner (for The Devil and Daniel Webster, 1941), Herrmann is particularly known for his collaborations with director Alfred Hitchcock, most famously Psycho, North by Northwest, The Man Who Knew Too Much, and Vertigo. He also composed notable scores for many other movies, including Citizen Kane, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, Cape Fear, and Taxi Driver. He worked extensively in radio drama (most notably for Orson Welles), composed the scores for several fantasy films by Ray Harryhausen, and many TV programs including most notably Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone and Have Gun–Will Travel.

Louis Althusser



Louis Pierre Althusser was a French Marxist philosopher.

He was born in Algeria and studied at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris, where he eventually became Professor of Philosophy.

Althusser was a longtime member—although sometimes a strong critic—of the French Communist Party. His arguments and thesis were set against the threats that he saw attacking the theoretical foundations of Marxism. These included both the influence of empiricism on Marxist theory, and humanist and reformist socialist orientations which manifested as divisions in the European communist parties, as well as the problem of the "cult of personality" and of ideology.

Althusser is commonly referred to as a structural Marxist, although his relationship to other schools of French structuralism is not a simple affiliation and he was critical of many aspects of structuralism.

Hansjorg Felmy



Hansjörg Felmy was a German actor.

He appeared in 50 films and television shows between 1957 and 1995. He starred in the film The Marriage of Mr. Mississippi (1961), which was entered into the 11th Berlin International Film Festival. In the German television crime series Tatort he played the commissioner Heinz Haferkamp from 1974 to 1980, who remains well known in Germany.

He died in Eching near Munich.

Robert Pandraud



Robert Pandraud was a French politician .

Former director of the national police , member of the RPR then of UMP , he was deputy of the Seine-Saint-Denis (1988 - 2007) and minister delegate to the Security (1986 - 1988) in the second government Jacques Chirac .

Son of a teacher and student, Robert Pandraud graduated from the Institut d'Etudes Politiques in Paris and the Ecole Nationale d'Administration.

He began his administrative career in the prefecture , before becoming secretary-general of the Hauts-de-Seine (1967 – 1968).

He was subsequently Director of the National Police ( 1970 - 1973 ), Director of Personnel and Materiel of the Police ( 1973 ).

In 1974 , Robert Pandraud became deputy director of the cabinet of the Minister of the Interior, Michel Poniatowski . From 1975 to 1978 , he was Director of the National Police and, from 1978 to 1981 , Director General of Administration at the Ministry of the Interior. In July 1981 he was appointed Inspector General of the Ministry of the Interior.

In March 1982 , he joined the office of Paris Mayor Jacques Chirac, as Director General of the Administrative Services of the Paris Department. he was then director of the mayor's office (1983 - 1986).

During the cohabitation between François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac , from 1986 to 1988 , he was Minister of State for Security alongside the Minister of the Interior Charles Pasqua . It must put an end to a wave of terrorist attacks and repress the major demonstrations of high school students against the bill reforming the French universities presented by the Minister Alain Devaquet . These are marked by the death of Malik Oussekine .

He is a member of the Legion of Honor , a gold medal of the National Police, married and father of three children. He is a deputy RPR (1988-2002) and then UMP (2002-2007) in the 8 th district of the Seine-Saint -Denis . He was also a member of the honor committee of the Initiative and Freedom Movement and the National Interuniversity Union (UNI).
He was not a candidate for re- election in the June 2007 legislative elections and was replaced by Patrice Calméjane, his former deputy, in the National Assembly.
From 2002 to his death, he chaired the commission of organization and control of electoral operations (COCOE) of the UMP.

Hubert Nyssen



Hubert Nyssen was a Belgian-French writer, publisher and founder of the Éditions Actes Sud.

Hubert Nyssen grew up in Boitsfort and settled in Provence in 1968. He became a naturalised French citizen in 1976. A novelist, diarist, essayist and poet, he was the author of numerous books.

During his childhood in Brussels, under the German occupation, he was influenced by his grandfather who gave him a taste for intellectual culture. After his university studies at the Free University of Brussels, he founded an advertising company which became one of the most prosperous in Belgium. At the same time, he ran his own cultural center in Brussels, spoke on the radio and published his first literary works. In 1978, breaking up with his past as a French businessman, he founded in Arles the éditions Actes Sud with the help of his wife Christine Le Bœuf, a descendant of a rich family of Belgian businessmen, Henry Le Bœuf and Albert Thys. In this new life, his dispositions for business and his literary talents were soon to bear fruit, whereas at the time, setting up a publishing house in the south of France constituted an unprecedented audacity, all large French publishing houses being Parisian. It was a challenge and a real "cultural exception". Among his many editorial successes, he made known the American author Paul Auster in French translation and published in French the Swedish thriller trilogy Millenium.

But he was also a talented author and published more than forty works in the fields of novel, theater, poetry and essays.

Doctor of Arts, he taught at the University of Provence and University of Liège. The University of Liège, which hosts its archives, the Nyssen Fund, appointed him Doctor honoris causa in 2003.

Karl Radek


Karl Berngardovich Radek was a Marxist active in the Polish and German social democratic movements before World War I and an international Communist leader in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution.

Radek was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary, as Karol Sobelsohn, to a Jewish Litvak family; his father, Bernhard, worked in the post office and died whilst Karl was young. He took the name Radek from a favorite character, Andrzej Radek, in Syzyfowe prace ('The Labor of Sisyphus', 1897) by Stefan Żeromski.

Radek joined the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL) in 1904 and participated in the 1905 Revolution in Warsaw, where he had responsibility for the party's newspaper Czerwony Sztandar.

In 1907, after his arrest in Poland and his escape from custody, Radek moved to Leipzig in Germany and joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), working on the Party's Leipziger Volkszeitung. He re-located to Bremen, where he worked for Bremer Bürgerzeitung, in 1911, and was one of several who attacked Karl Kautsky's analysis of imperialism in Die Neue Zeit in May 1912.

In September 1910, Radek was accused by members of the Polish Socialist Party of stealing books, clothes and money from party comrades, as part of an anti-semitic campaign against the SDKPiL. On this occasion, he was vigorously defended by the SDKPiL leaders, Rosa Luxemburg and Leo Jogiches. The following year, however, the SDKPiL changed course, partly because of a personality clash between Jogiches and Vladimir Lenin, during which younger members of the party, led by Yakov Hanecki, and including Radek, had sided with Lenin. Wanting to make an example of Radek, Jogiches revived the charges of theft, and convened a party commission in December 1911 to investigate. He dissolved the commission in July 1912, after it had failed to come to any conclusion, and in August pushed a decision through the party court expelling Radek. In their written finding, they broke his alias, making it - he claimed - dangerous for him to stay in Russian occupied Poland.

In 1912 August Thalheimer invited Radek to go to Goppingen (near Stuttgart) to temporarily replace him in control of the local SPD party newspaper Freie Volkszeitung, which had financial difficulties. Radek accused the local party leadership in Württemberg of assisting the revisionists to strangle the newspaper due to the paper's hostility to them. The 1913 SPD Congress noted Radek's expulsion and then went on to decide in principle that no-one who had been expelled from a sister-party could join another party within the Second International and retrospectively applied this rule to Radek. Within the SPD Anton Pannekoek and Karl Liebknecht opposed this move, as did others in the International such as Leon Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin, some of whom participated in the "Paris Commission" set up by the International.

After the outbreak of World War I Radek moved to Switzerland where he worked as a liaison between Lenin and the Bremen Left, with which he had close links from his time in Germany, introducing him to Paul Levi at this time. He took part in the Zimmerwald Conference in 1915, siding with the left.

In 1917 Radek was one of the passengers on the sealed train that carried Lenin and other Russian revolutionaries through Germany after the February Revolution in Russia. However, he was refused entry to Russia and went on to Stockholm and produced the journals Russische Korrespondenz-Pravda and Bote der Russischen Revolution to publish Bolshevik documents and Russian information in German.

After the October Revolution, Radek arrived in Petrograd and became Vice-Commissar for Foreign Affairs, taking part in the Brest-Litovsk treaty negotiations, as well as being responsible for the distribution of Bolshevik propaganda amongst German troops and prisoners of war.

After being refused recognition as official representative of the Bolshevik regime, Radek and other delegates - Adolph Joffe, Nikolai Bukharin, Christian Rakovsky and Ignatov - traveled to the German Congress of Soviets. After they were turned back at the border, Radek alone crossed the German border illegally in December 1918, arriving in Berlin on 19 or 20 December, where he participated in the discussions and conferences leading to the foundation of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). Radek was arrested after the Spartacist uprising on 12 February 1919 and held in Moabit prison until his release in January 1920. While he was in Moabit, the attitude of the German authorities towards the Bolsheviks changed. The idea of creating an alliance of nations that had suffered from the Versailles treaty - principally Germany, Russia and Turkey - gained currency in Berlin, as a result of which Radek was allowed to receive a stream of visitors in his prison cell, including Walter Rathenau, Enver Pasha, and Ruth Fischer.

On his return to Russia Radek became the Secretary of the Comintern, taking the main responsibility for German issues. He was removed from this position after he supported the KPD in opposing inviting representatives of the Communist Workers' Party of Germany to attend the 2nd Congress of the Comintern, pitting him against the Comintern's executive and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It was Radek who took up the slogan of Stuttgart communists of fighting for a United Front with other working class organisations, that later formed the basis for the strategy developed by the Comintern.

In mid-1923, Radek made his controversial speech 'Leo Schlageter: The Wanderer into the Void' at an open session of the Executive Committee of the Communist International (ECCI). In the speech he praised the actions of the German Freikorps officer and Nazi collaborator Leo Schlageter who had been shot whilst engaging in sabotage against French troops occupying the Ruhr area; in doing so Radek sought to explain the reasons why men like Schlageter were drawn towards the far right, and attempted to channel national grievances away from chauvinism and towards the support of the working movement and the Communists.

Although Radek was not at Chemnitz when the decision to cancel the uprising in November 1923 took place at the KPD Zentrale, he subsequently approved the decision and defended it. At subsequent congresses of the Russian Communist Party and meetings of the ECCI, Radek and Brandler were made the scapegoats for the defeat of the revolution by Zinoviev, with Radek being removed from the ECCI at the Fifth Congress of the Comintern.

Radek was part of the Left Opposition from 1923, writing his famed article 'Leon Trotsky: Organizer of Victory' shortly after Lenin's stroke in January of that year. Later in the year at the Thirteenth Party Congress Radek was removed from the Central Committee.

In the summer of 1925, Radek was appointed Provost of the newly established Sun Yat-Sen University in Moscow, where Radek collected information for the opposition from students about the situation in China and cautiously began to challenge the official Comintern policy. However, the terminal illness of Radek's lover, Larisa Reisner, saw Radek lose his inhibitions and he began publicly criticising Stalin, in particular debating Stalin's doctrine of Socialism in One Country at the Communist Academy. Radek was sacked from his post at Sun Yat-Sen University in May 1927.

Radek was expelled from the Party in 1927 after helping to organise an independent demonstration on the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution with Grigory Zinoviev in Leningrad. In early 1928, when prominent oppositionists were deported to various remote locations within the Soviet Union, Radek was sent to Tobolsk and a few months later moved on to Tomsk.

On 10 July 1929, Radek, alongside other oppositionists Ivar Smilga and Yevgeni Preobrazhensky, signed a document capitulating to Stalin, with Radek being held in particular disdain by oppositionist circles for his betrayal of Yakov Blumkin, who had been carrying a secret letter from Trotsky, in exile in Turkey, to Radek. However, he was re-admitted in 1930 and was one of the few former oppositionists to retain a prominent place within the party, heading the International Information Bureau of the Russian Communist Party Central Committee as well as giving the address on foreign literature at the First Soviet Writer's Conference in 1934. In that speech, he denounced Marcel Proust and James Joyce. He said that "in the pages of Proust, the old world, like a mangy dog no longer capable of any action whatever, lies basking in the sun and endlessly licks its sores" and compared Joyce's Ulysses to "a heap of dung, crawling with worms, photographed by a cinema apparatus through a microscope." He helped to write the 1936 Soviet Constitution but, during the Great Purge of the 1930s, he was accused of treason and confessed, after two and a half months of interrogation, at the Trial of the Seventeen (1937, also called the Second Moscow Trial). He was sentenced to 10 years of penal labor.

He was reportedly killed in a labor camp in a fight with another inmate. However, during an investigation in the Khrushchev Thaw it was established that he was killed by an NKVD operative under direct orders from Lavrentiy Beria.

Peter Dumayet



Pierre Dumayet was a journalist , writer and producer French , who participated in the beginnings of French television .

Pierre Dumayet was born in the Yvelines . Licensee of philosophy and literature lovers, he wants to become a pharmacist at the origin. He teaches journalism by working in radio in 1946 for a literary magazine he runs with Pierre Desgraupes : an employee who shares his vision of independent journalism and demanding and that later he designed several programs for television. He participates in its infancy at the time of television and a pioneer in this new space of freedom where everything is invented. It is indeed working on the first news program in the RTF , on 29 June 1949 presented by Pierre Sabbagh alongside Jean-Marie Coldefy , Pierre Tchernia , Georges de Caunes .

During the summer of 1950, Claude Barma performs the first series of French television: Nostradamus Agency which will be broadcast on 9 October 1950. Pierre Dumayet written the dialogues of ten episodes that make up the series.

He collaborated with Pierre Desgraupes for fifteen years to the creation and presentation of Reading for All , introducing literature on television, the French broadcast to the longest lifetime (1953-1968), initiated by Jean d'Arcy Program Director and first telecast March 27, 1953. He is writer, producer and co-producer of many shows including, in all conscience also with Pierre Desgraupes in 1955 and five columns to a (1959-1968), a news program created according to his statements in response to the seizure of Charles de Gaulle on television at that time. It is also the author of numerous shows like The Times to read (1970), Hundred issues behind a mirror, thousands of books written by hand (1975).

It shows in his career by interviewing important figures of the twentieth century as Eugene Ionesco , Claude Levi-Strauss , Jean Cocteau , the General Massu , Jorge Luis Borges , Robert Badinter , Louis Ferdinand Celine , and even Rene Goscinny or Marie Besnard .

He died November 17, 2011 and is buried in Bages.

Sir Edwin Lutyens



Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens was a British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country houses.

He has been referred to as "the greatest British architect" and is known best for having an instrumental role in designing and building a section of the metropolis of Delhi, known as New Delhi, which would later on serve as the seat of the Government of India. In recognition of his contribution, New Delhi is also known as "Lutyens' Delhi". In collboration with Herbert Baker, he was also the main architect of several monuments in New Delhi such as the India Gate; he also designed the Viceroy's House now known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan.