26 October, 2017

Livingston Hopkins

Livingston York Yourtee "Hop" Hopkins was an American cartoonist who became a major Australian cartoonist during the time of the Federation of Australia.

Hopkins was born in Bellefontaine, Ohio, son of Daniel Hopkins (1800–1849), surveyor, and his wife Sarah, née Carter. He was the thirteenth of 14 children. His family were Methodists, and his upbringing was somewhat hard and puritanical. When his father died, his mother was left with a home and a small estate. The boy went to the district school, and from the age of 14 years worked at various avocations until 1864 when he enlisted in the 130th Ohio Volunteer Regiment to fight in the American Civil War when 17 years old. He had very little active service, as the regiment's term of service was only three months.

After the war Hopkins went to Toledo, Ohio where some sketches he had made were shown to the proprietor of the Toledo Blade. As a result, he was engaged as an illustrator, which led to an appointment on Scribner's Weekly. During this engagement he had a few months training in drawing. Hopkins then went to New York City, where some of his drawings were accepted by Judge and the New York Daily Graphic, and he also wrote and illustrated A Comic History of United States. This was published in good time for the centennial celebrations in 1876, but in the patriotism of the time the book was unfavourably reviewed, and it was a failure. Hopkins married Harriet Augusta Commager on 9 June 1875 in Toledo and they had three children. Hopkins published in Puck and continued his freelance work for a period of 13 years and did a large amount of work for St. Nicholas Magazine and for the Harper publications, the Weekly, the Magazine, the Bazaar and Young People. He was also commissioned to illustrate editions of Don Quixote, Gulliver's Travels, Baron Munchausen, and Knickerbocker's History of New York. Towards the end of 1882 William Henry Traill called on him and offered him a two-year contract as cartoonist on The Bulletin in Australia. The offer was accepted.

Hopkins arrived in Sydney on 9 February 1883 with his family and worked for The Bulletin until his retirement in 1913. A constant stream of clever illustrations came from his pen, and he contributed not a little to the power wielded by The Bulletin in its most vigorous days. A selection of his drawings was published in 1904 under the title of On the Hop. Among his best known creations were the Little Boy from Manly in April 1885, "I thought I had a stamp", and the many George Reid drawings. Reproductions of three of his etchings show that he had an excellent sense of the capabilities of that medium. He also occasionally painted in oil or water-colours. After 1913 the volume of his work for The Bulletin gradually diminished, but he kept his interest in the journal of which he was now part-proprietor and director. He busied himself with making violins, gardening, music and playing bowls. He died on 21 August 1927 at Mosman, Sydney, aged 81. 

Sir Archibald Boyd-Carpenter

Major Sir Archibald Boyd Boyd-Carpenter was a British Conservative Party politician.

The fourth son of William Boyd-Carpenter, Bishop of Ripon and Canon of Westminster, Archibald Boyd-Carpenter was educated at Harrow School and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he was Secretary and President of the Oxford Union. Following college he worked for three years in the editorial staff of the Yorkshire Post. With the start of the Second Boer War Boyd-Carpenter served with the Imperial Yeomanry and in 1900 was commissioned in the Highland Light Infantry. During the war he was mentioned in despatches and awarded the Queen's medal (with 3 clasps) and the King's medal (with 2 clasps). In the later stages of the war, he was from 1901 to 1902 Staff Captain to Major-General Lord Chesham, and Brigadier General Herbert Belfield while they served as Inspector general of Imperial Yeomanry. He returned home with Belfield in the SS Kinfauns Castle leaving Cape Town in early August 1902, after the war had ended. He later served in the First World War.

He was Mayor of Harrogate, 1909–1910 and 1910–1911; Alderman of the Borough and represented Harrogate in West Riding County Council, 1910–1919. He was elected as Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Bradford North from 1918 to 1923, for Coventry from 1924 to 1929 and for Chertsey from 1931.

Boyd-Carpenter held ministerial office as Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Labour from November 1922 until March 1923, Financial Secretary to the Treasury from March to May 1923, Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty and Paymaster-General from May 1923 until January 1924. Boyd-Carpenter was knighted in 1926.

Boyd-Carpenter married Annie Dugdale in 1907 and they had a son and daughter, he died on 27 May 1937 in Harrogate, aged 64.

Charles Jagger

Charles Sargeant Jagger was a British sculptor who, following active service in the First World War, sculpted many works on the theme of war. He is best known for his war memorials, especially the Royal Artillery Memorial at Hyde Park Corner and the Great Western Railway War Memorial in Paddington Railway Station, both of which are in London, and he also designed several other monuments around Britain and other parts of the world.

Jagger was the son of a colliery manager, and was educated at Sheffield Royal Grammar School. At age 14 he became an apprentice metal engraver with the Sheffield firm Mappin and Webb. He studied at the Sheffield School of Art before moving to London to study sculpture at the Royal College of Art (1908–11) under Édouard Lantéri. Jagger worked as Lanteri's assistant, and also as instructor in modelling at the Lambeth School of Art. He counted among his friends William Reid Dick and William McMillan. His early works dealt with classical and literary themes and were influenced by the New Sculpture movement in the focus on medievalism and on surface qualities. His student work won him a travelling scholarship that made it possible for him to spend several months in Rome and Venice. In 1914 he won the British Prix de Rome. Both his elder sister, Edith, and his younger brother, David were painters.

When war broke out in 1914, Jagger gave up his Rome scholarship to join the army. At first, Jagger joined the Artists' Rifles, and in 1915 he was commissioned in the Worcestershire Regiment. Jagger served in Gallipoli and on the Western Front, and was wounded three times. He was awarded the Military Cross for gallantry.

Jagger's style tended towards realism, especially his portrayal of soldiers. The fashion at the time was for idealism and modernism in sculpture, but Jagger's figures were rugged and workman-like, earning him a reputation for 'realist' sculpture. Although Jagger was commissioned as a sculptor of a variety of monuments, it is for his war memorials that he is chiefly remembered.

Whilst convalescing from war wounds in 1919, he began work on No Man's Land, a low relief which is today is part of the Tate Collection. It depicts a "listening post", a technique of trench warfare in which a soldier would hide among the corpses, broken stretchers and barbed wire of No Man's Land, in order to listen for the enemy.

His Royal Artillery Memorial ARA (1921–25) at Hyde Park Corner in London is one of his best-known works. It features a giant sculpture of a howitzer surrounded by four bronze soldiers and stone relief scenes, and is dedicated to casualties in the British Royal Regiment of Artillery in World War I. When Jagger was commissioned to work on the Royal Artillery Memorial, he remarked to the Daily Express the "experience in the trenches persuaded me of the necessity for frankness and truth".

Monumental works of the period used symbolic figures rather than actual depictions of soldiers. Furthermore, during the war years, a government edict had banned images of dead British soldiers. Jagger defied both these conventions by creating realistic bronze figures of three standing soldiers and the body of a dead soldier laid out and shrouded by a greatcoat. The Gunner became the inspiration for a hero in the children's fantasy novel Stoneheart by Charlie Fletcher. Jagger was made an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1926.

After the demand for war memorials had subsided, Jagger continued to receive important commissions and his works were increasingly influenced by Art Deco. Some of his works include allegorical stone figures at Imperial Chemical House, London (1928) and The Kelham Rood (1929).

In 1931 Jagger was commissioned by architect Edwin Lutyens to design a sculpture of Christ the King for the designs for Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral. The sculpture was never executed because Lutyens' design was extremely costly and funding for the building work ran out. A model of Lutyens' unrealised building is displayed in the Walker Art Gallery. Jagger was also commissioned to provide sculptures of elephants and imperial lions for Lutyens' government buildings in New Delhi, India.

Jagger produced many smaller works, such as busts, statuettes, reliefs, and exhibited them at the Royal Academy 1913-34, his work continued to be exhibited posthumously, including at the Glasgow Empire Exhibition in 1938.

Charles Sargeant Jagger died suddenly from pneumonia on 16 November 1934. He was in the process of finishing a statue of George V for New Delhi at his death, and work on it was completed by William Reid Dick

E.H. Griffith

Edward H. Griffith was an American motion picture director, screenwriter, and producer. He directed 61 films from 1917 to 1946.

He directed actress Madeleine Carroll in several films including Honeymoon in Bali (1939). Griffith died on March 3, 1975 at the age of 86.

Nacho López

Nacho López  was an important figure in the photojournalism of Mexico in the 20th century. Unlike the current of the time, he mostly rejected the creation of images that made Mexico exotic and preferred the photographing of the common people of Mexico City over that of the country’s political and social elite. He is credited for being the first in Mexico to work on photographic series, which he called “photo-essays” meant for publication in weekly pictorial magazines in the country. About half of his photographs were events staged by López designed to capture the reactions of bystanders. Although he was an active photojournalist for less than a decade in the 1950s, he was influential to the generations of photojournalists that followed him, with a collection of about 33,000 images now at the federal photograph archive in Pachuca, Hidalgo.

Theo van Doesburg

Theo van Doesburg was a Dutch artist, who practiced painting, writing, poetry and architecture. He is best known as the founder and leader of De Stijl.

Bart van der Leck

Bart van der Leck was a Dutch painter, designer, and ceramacist. With Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian he founded the De Stijl art movement.

Son of a house painter, he started his career learning how to make stained glass in a shop in Utrecht. An example of his later stained glass work is in the Kröller-Müller Museum in Hoge Veluwe, Netherlands. After having met Mondrian and van Doesburg and having founded the Stijl movement with them, his style became completely abstract, as did Mondrian's. But after disagreements with Mondrian his abstract style became based on representational images. His painting Tryptich is an example, in which he transformed sketches of a mine in Spain into seemingly abstract shapes.

In 1919-1920 he created the interior design for St Hubertus Hunting Lodge, in the Hoge Veluwe estate. The hunting lodge was designed by Hendrik Petrus Berlage. In 1930, he was commissioned by Jo de Leeuw, owner of the prestigious Dutch department store Metz & Co. to design interiors, window packaging, branding and advertising. For these print materials van der Leck developed a rectilinear, geometrically constructed alphabet. In 1941, he designed a typeface based on this alphabet for the avant-garde magazine Flax.

Sir Richard van der Riet Woolley

Sir Richard van der Riet Woolley was an English astronomer who became Astronomer Royal. 

Sir Hubert Wilkins

Sir George Hubert Wilkins  was an Australian polar explorer, ornithologist, pilot, soldier, geographer and photographer.

Henk Bremmer

Hendricus Peter Bremmer was a Dutch painter, art critic, art teacher, collector and art dealer.

Bremmer trained as a painter and artist, working in journalism from 1893–1895 and began teaching art in 1896. In the 1906-1907 season, Helene Kröller-Müller, then one of the richest women in the Netherlands, was his pupil and she soon began collecting art. Bremmer advised her to put together a collection, later forming the basis of the Kröller-Müller Museum. Bremmer had contact with many artists. He lived from 1902 until his death in Artiestenhof in The Hague. In 1912 he came into contact with Bart van der Leck, providing financial support and a monthly allowance.

In 1906 he published the art critique Eene inleiding tot het zien van beeldende kunst. In 1913 he started a magazine of fine arts Bremmer had so much influence in Dutch art in the first half of the 20th century that he was called the "Art Pope." He Died on January 10, 1956.

Eduard Frankfort

Eduard Salomon Frankfort was a Dutch Jewish painter during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Frankfort was born to Salomon Simon Frankfort and Dine Bendien-Frankfort. He was the youngest of eight children. His father was a devoutly religious merchant, and Eduard's upbringing reflected his father's strict religious beliefs. When he was eleven years old, his family moved to Amsterdam, where Salomon Simon Frankfort hoped Eduard would eventually take a municipal job. Eduard, however, showed an early interest in painting. From ages eleven to seventeen, he underwent formal training at Atelier Bing to become a visual artist. In 1887, he studied under master painter August Allebé at the Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten (the Royal Academy for Visual Arts) in Amsterdam. Afterwards, he studied painting for several months at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen (the Antwerp Royal Academy of Fine Arts) in Antwerp, Belgium.

Eduard Frankfort remained in Amsterdam until 1905. Many of his paintings featured Jewish religious themes. Like other contemporary artists, Frankfort was drawn to Laren. In 1903, he was awarded a gold medal by the Royal Art Society "Arti et Amicitiae". He was highly regarded at that time and was asked to teach at several schools. In 1905, he followed his sister to South Africa, where he toured and painted portraits. One such portrait he did during this time was of Esther de Boer-van Rijk. After his tour of South Africa, Eduard Frankfort returned to Amsterdam, where he married Klara Kloots in 1911. The couple lived on Beethovenstraat in Amsterdam and had four children. Eduard Frankfort was a member of several professional societies, including "Arti et Amiticiae" and "Pulchri Studio". He was awarded the Diploma of the Royal Academy of Holland, the Royal Gold Medal of "Arti et Amiticiae" and four medals from the Academy of Holland at art exhibitions in Paris, St.Louis, Arnhem and Barcelona.

Eduard Frankfort continued to paint and lead a distinguished career until his death on 19 August 1920, at age 56.

Alf Pomian

Alf Pomian was a Polish economist, journalist, Polish consular officer, and Polish activist.

Pomain was born to Joseph Alfons Hajdukiewicz and Olimpia Pietkiewicz. He studied law and economics in Paris and Stockholm, was a representative of Swedish companies in India and Africa, among others. In Dahomeju, he also served in the Foreign Legion. From January 1920 he served as Honorary Consul of the Republic of Poland in Stockholm, then transferred to the Polish Foreign Service, where he served as consul in Hamburg (1921-1925) and in Liepaja (1926-1931). From 1 May 1933 the contract agent of the Republic of Poland in Stockholm. From 1 December 1935 the press attaché in Stockholm. He was the president of the Polish Committee of Rescue, the Polish Committee for Aid in Sweden and the Council of Polish Refugees.

He died at the age of 105; rests in the Norra cemetery begravningsplatsen in Solna near Stockholm.

Sir Ernest Marsden

Sir Ernest Marsden was an English-New Zealand physicist. He is recognized internationally for his contributions to science while working under Ernest Rutherford, which led to the discovery of new theories on the structure of the atom. In Marsden's later work in New Zealand, he became a significant member of the scientific community, while maintaining close links to the United Kingdom.

Born in Manchester, Marsden lived in Rishton and attended Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Blackburn.  In 1909, as a 20-year-old student at the University of Manchester, he met and began work under Ernest Rutherford. While still an undergraduate he conducted the famous Geiger–Marsden experiment, called the gold foil experiment, together with Hans Geiger under Rutherford's supervision. This experiment led to Rutherford's new theory for the structure of the atom, with a centralized concentration of mass and positive charge surrounded by empty space and a sea of orbiting negatively charged electrons. Rutherford later described this as "almost as incredible as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back to hit you."  The apparatus used in the experiment was an early version of what was to become the Geiger counter.

In 1915 he moved to Victoria University College in Wellington, New Zealand to replace Thomas Laby as Professor of Physics; Rutherford recommended his appointment there. Marsden served in France during World War I as a Royal Engineer in a special sound-ranging section and earned the Military Cross. In 1922 Marsden turned from his research and position as Professor of Physics to bureaucracy. He was appointed Assistant Director of Education before accepting the position of Secretary of New Zealand's new Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) in 1926. The new Department's focus was on assisting primary industries, and Marsden worked to organize research particularly in the area of agriculture.  Marsden initiated a number of projects that kept New Zealand in touch with international developments in the field of radiation and nuclear sciences. In 1939 he pioneered the non-medical use of radioisotopes in New Zealand, and conducted a series of experiments to determine the role of cobalt in animal metabolism.

With the outbreak of World War II Marsden was given the title of Director of Scientific Developments, and was charged with mobilizing New Zealand's scientific manpower. During the War he worked on radar research, setting up a team to develop the radar equipment for use in the Pacific. Marsden also used his scientific connections to form a team of young New Zealand Scientists who would participate in the American Manhattan Project developing the nuclear bomb, and initiated the search for uranium, the raw material needed for nuclear projects, in New Zealand. Marsden had a post-war vision of a nuclear New Zealand, with scientists working on research using local nuclear reactors, and developing connections with the British nuclear energy and weapons program. While this vision was not fully realized, in 1946 he established a team of scientists to carry out research into atomic energy and the application of nuclear science to problems in agriculture, health, and industry. Ties between Marsden and the scientific community in Britain remained strong, and in 1947 he became the DSIR's scientific liaison officer in London.

Marsden retired in 1954 and returned to Wellington, where he continued to work and travel extensively, serving on a number of committees and conducting research into environmental radioactivity. As his studies turned to the impact of fallout from radioactive bombs, Marsden came to oppose testing and the development of nuclear weapons. While Marsden had a significant role in establishing and encouraging nuclear science in New Zealand, this role of speaking out against nuclear weapons development and testing - which he only did after the British nuclear testing program was complete - is less known.

In 1966, the same year France began testing nuclear bombs in the Pacific, Marsden suffered a stroke which left him confined to a wheelchair. He later died at his home in Lowry Bay, Lower Hutt on the shores of Wellington Harbour in 1970.