01 November, 2017

T. Lux Feininger

T. Lux Feininger was a German-American painter, avant-garde photographer, author, and art teacher .

Feininger was born in Berlin to Julia Berg and Lyonel Feininger, an American living in Germany. His father was appointed as the Master of the Printing Workingshop at the newly formed Bauhaus art school in Weimar by Walter Gropius in 1919.

At sixteen, Lux Feininger became a student at the Bauhaus at Dessau, where he studied painting with Josef Albers, Paul Klee, and Wassily Kandinsky, played in the Bauhauskapelle, the Bauhaus jazz band, and participated in experimental theater. It was here that he began taking photographs and assumed the role of an artistic photojournalist chronicling the daily life at Bauhaus. Although no photographic studio was part of the Bauhaus until 1929, his photography was influenced by the aesthetic of László Moholy-Nagy, who lived adjacent to the Feininger family. Soon Feininger was selling his photographs to periodicals and newspapers through an agency. By 1929 his work was featured in Film und Foto, a survey of modern photography.

A retrospective of his early photography was held in 1962 at the Busch-Reisinger Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts and in 2001, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in Manhattan, showed his works at an exhibit entitled, Dancing on the Roof: Photography and the Bauhaus (1923-1929).

In 1929 he also began to exhibit his paintings under a pseudonym, Theodore Lux, by which his stated intention was to avoid preferential treatment arising from the fame of his father. These are his first and second given names without his family name, he had never used his first name prior to this time. His initial paintings included maritime subjects, frequently of old sailing ships. From 1930 to 1935 he spent time in Paris. In 1936 Feininger left Germany and settled in the United States. His family had been targeted by the Nazis as undesirable foreigners participating in "decadent" cultural activities and they, along with many Bauhaus artists and designers, emigrated. The majority of the negatives for his collection of photographs had been left behind during his departure from Germany and none of these have been recovered.

In 1937 he had his first solo show of paintings in Manhattan. Transportation subjects such as train locomotives, as well as, toys were featured in his paintings along with what the New York Times described as, striking self-portraits. After the United States entered World War II, Feininger served in its army intelligence.

In 1947 he ceased using the pseudonym to sign his paintings and began using his family name in his signature. During the 1940s he continued his photography as a personal activity only, focusing upon transportation subjects that included ferries, ships, trains, and trucks as well as street scenes in Manhattan. He never exhibited this later photography, however, and completely abandoned the art in 1950s.

During the 1950s Feininger painted a mural in the home of John M. van Beuren that was being built near Morristown, New Jersey by architect, Bertrand Goldberg. A personal friend of Feininger, van Beuren was the brother of Michael van Beuren, a Bauhaus furniture designer who hosted Gropius and other Bauhaus staff and faculty members fleeing the Nazis, at a van Beuren family residence in México while they relocated and selected destinations in the Americas for refuge. The mural was not able to be relocated when van Beuren commissioned Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the next home built for van Beuren nearby on the family estate, but it was documented by other members of the Bauhaus community.

By the 1960s Feininger had adopted the semi-abstract prismatic painting style of his father and Kandinsky. He continued to paint for the remainder of his life.

A joint exhibition of Feininger's paintings was held in 2010 at the Berlin and the Manhattan galleries of Moeller Fine Art. In 2011 the Kunsthalle in Kiel, Germany presented a traveling exhibition, World Sailor: T. Lux Feininger on His 100th Birthday, that also was exhibited at the Lyonel Feininger Gallery in Quedlinburg, Germany, a town now on the UNESCO world heritage list.

Lux Feininger lived to be 101 years old, dying on July 7, 2011 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, and his paintings are often characterized by a dreamlike quality. The intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny.

Bonnard has been described as "the most thoroughly idiosyncratic of all the great twentieth-century painters", and the unusual vantage points of his compositions rely less on traditional modes of pictorial structure than voluptuous color, poetic allusions and visual wit. Identified as a late practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color and his complex imagery.

Marcel Brion

Marcel Brion was a French essayist, literary critic, novelist, and historian.

Anatole Jakovsky

Anatole Jakovsky was a French art critic who wrote substantially, collected widely, and established a museum in Nice for Naïve art, Musée international d'Art naïf Anatole Jakovsky.

Atole Jakovsky was born in Chişinău (now Republic of Moldova). In 1932, he moved from Romania to Paris. He met the secretary of Prokofiev who introduced him amongst the artistic colony of Montparnasse. There he developed a binding friendship with Jean Hélion and mingled with the abstract artists who revolved around Michel Seuphor and Joaquín Torres García.

Soon Anatole Jakovsky became an art critic focusing on the abstract painters and in particular the Abstraction "movement - Creation " of Auguste Herbin of whom he wrote the first monograph. His first papers are devoted to Calder, Arp, Delaunay, Hélion, Mondrian, Nicholson, Pevsner, Seligmann, Villon, Vulliamy, Braque, Picasso, Zadkine… All of whom become friends. He also maintained a very close relationship with Robert Delaunay. Together, in 1939, they created "The Keys of the Paving Stones", the first plastic book. It is a collection of poems signed "Anatole Delagrave", illustrated by Robert Delaunay and made of plates of rhodoïde fluorescent. It is the first and last time that Anatole Jakovsky had recourse to a pseudonym. The work was drawn with 100 plates which are on show at the

In the process of exploring various avenues of interest, Jakovsky met the naïve painter Jean Fous. There, in 1942, while helping him unpack books and various objects, he discovered canvases in a portfolio case of a Rousseau Customs officer which caught his interest. From that moment on, Anatole Jakovsky officially devoted himself to defend, promote and collect naïve painting.

In 1949, he made his first appearance with the Editions J Damase in Paris, his first significant work on this artistic expression: "Naive painting". He did not cease writing forewords, monographs, and critical pieces as well as organizing international exhibitions of Naïve art, gathering little by little probably the most significant collection of naïve paintings, which he eventually donated with all his files to the town of Nice in 1978.

Four years later, the Museum of the Castle of Sainte-Hélène bearing her name, preserved 600 canvases and drawings, sculptures, paintings under glass recalling the complete history of the Naïve art from the 17th century to the present time. Jakovsky's files have been integrated into the museum archives which holds exceptional documents legitimating the existence of this art among the first steps of all autonomous creations of the 20th century.

Parallel with his interest in naïve painting, Anatole Jakovsky developed an interest in Gaston Chaissac of whom he wrote the first biography; Alphonse Allais, whom he discovered; the history of tobacco, the collections of pipes which it compared with Marcel Duchamp; old robots; old postcards; the history of the Eiffel Tower; the Palate of the Factor Horse and the Rocks of Rotheneuf; art populaire…

Atole Jakovsky was a man in constant quest of discovery. He knew how to anticipate the taste of his contemporaries. He foresaw man on the moon and predicted World War II war as early as 1935. His eclecticism, his perspicacity, his pugnacity and stubbornness allowed us all to discover a whole new art culture.

Christoph Probst

Christoph Hermann Probst was a German student of medicine and member of the White Rose resistance group.

White Rose was the name of a resistance group in Munich in the time of the Third Reich. The group, founded in June 1942, consisted of students from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich who distributed leaflets against the Nazis' war policy. Christoph Probst belonged, along with the Scholl siblings, Willi Graf and Alexander Schmorell to the tightest circle, into which university professor Kurt Huber also came.

The members of White Rose put together, printed and distributed, at the risk of their lives, six leaflets in all. On 18 February 1943, the Scholls were distributing the sixth leaflet at the university when they were discovered by a custodian, who delivered them to the Gestapo.

Through his father, Hermann Probst, Christoph came to know cultural and religious freedom, and to treasure them. Hermann Probst was a private scholar and Sanskrit researcher, fostered contacts with artists who were deemed by the Nazis to be "decadent". After his first marriage with Karin Katharina Kleeblatt, Christoph's mother, broke up in 1919, he married Elise Jaffée, who was Jewish. Christoph's sister, Angelika, remembers that her brother was strongly critical of Nazi ideas that violated human dignity.

Probst went to boarding school at Marquartstein and Landheim Schondorf, which was also not conducive to fostering Nazi German ideas, and at 17, he matriculated. After military service, he began his medical studies with great earnestness. Aged 21, he married Herta Dohrn, with whom he had three children: Michael, Vincent and Katja.

Christoph Probst came rather late into the White Rose as he did not belong to the same student corps as Hans Scholl, Alexander Schmorell and Willi Graf, and stayed for the most part in the background, as he had to think of his family. He did not write any of the White Rose's leaflets, only the design for the seventh one which Hans Scholl was carrying with him when he and his sister Sophie went to the university on 18 February 1943 to distribute leftover copies of the sixth leaflet.

When the Scholl siblings were arrested at the University of Munich, the Gestapo acquired proof against Probst. Before his execution he requested to be and was baptized by a Roman Catholic priest. He was executed on 22 February 1943, along with Hans and Sophie Scholl, despite asking for clemency during interrogation. He also requested a trial for the sake of his wife and three children, who were aged three years, two years and four weeks old. His wife, Herta Probst, was sick with childbed fever at the time.

Arvid Harnack

Arvid Harnack was a German jurist, economist, and German resistance fighter in Nazi Germany.

Harnack was the son of literary history professor Otto Harnack, the elder brother of Falk Harnack, Inge Harnack and Angela Harnack as well as the nephew of theologian Adolf von Harnack. From 1919 to 1923, he studied law in Jena (at the Friedrich Schiller University), Graz, and Hamburg and became a Doctor of Law in 1924.

From 1926 to 1928, he studied economics at the University of Wisconsin in Madison in the United States, where in 1926 he married the literary historian Mildred Fish. In 1929-1930 he became a Doctor of Philosophy in Gießen, producing as his thesis Die vormarxistische Arbeiterbewegung in den Vereinigten Staaten ("The Pre-Marxist Workers' Movement in the United States"). Along with the Gießen economist Friedrich Lenz (1885–1968), he founded the Wissenschaftliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft zum Studium der sowjetischen Planwirtschaft ("Scientific Working Community for the Study of the Soviet Planned Economy"), or ARPLAN in 1931. Harnack was made First Secretary of this group, which counted about 50 members.

At the height of the Great Depression, the capitalist system had clearly broken down, and the Soviet model seemed to them to be an interesting alternative. Scientists, but also ardent revolutionary nationalists like Klaus Mehnert and Ernst Jünger and communist intellectuals like George Lukacs and Karl August Wittfogel took part in sessions. Harnack's hope, apparently, was that Germany could serve as a spiritual and economic bridge between East and West. The first meeting of the group took place on 3 and 4 January 1932. In August and September of the same year a three-week trip to the Soviet Union was organized with the help of the Soviet embassy in Berlin. The soviet economy was observed in Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa, Kiew and in the Dnieper region. Trips to the United States in 1937 and 1939 would follow, during which Harnack unsuccessfully tried to create a basis of communication with Washington.

In 1933, after Hitler's rise to power made it necessary to dissolve ARPLAN, Harnack was given a post as a scientific expert in the Reich Economic Ministry. The same year, he also finished his legal qualifications in Jena, successfully completing the junior law examination.

Together with his wife, Mildred, the writer, Adam Kuckhoff, and his wife, Greta, Harnack assembled a discussion circle which debated political perspectives on the time after the National Socialists' expected downfall or overthrow. By 1935, Harnack was active as a lecturer on foreign policy at the University of Berlin.

From 1937–41, Harnack, through a contact of his American wife, Mildred, held close contact with Donald Heath, the First Secretary at the US Embassy, to inform the US about Hitler's preparations for war. In 1941, after the Americans left Berlin, Harnack was contacted by the Soviets, and agreed to supply them with information about Hitler's war preparations. Unbeknownst to him, they applied the code names Balte and Corsican to him. While Harnack's relations with the Americans had been based on a mutual friendship with Heath, his relation with the Soviets was reluctant, as he didn't trust Stalin.

As a cover, Harnack became a member of the NSDAP in 1937. In 1935 came his first contact with Harro Schulze-Boysen, an air force lieutenant and descendant of an old German military family, and, in 1940, with the Communists Hilde Rake and Hans Coppi, as well as with Social Democrats like Adolf Grimme.

The resulting network was far reaching and didn't have a name. After the arrests, the Gestapo labeled them Red Orchestra (Rote Kapelle). In the Gestapo's terms, a spy hitting Morse codes was a pianist, a group of pianists formed an orchestra, and, as Communists, they were red. In reality, the resistance group had members from all walks of life. Membership included people from all social classes and age groups, and also from varied religious ideologies, e.g., mainly communist and National Bolshevik, and Jews and Christians. The group was also 40% female, practicing the egalitarian beliefs that were also present in the Irish Citizen Army and Cumann na mBan during the 1916 Irish Rebellion. In 1941, Harnack sent the Soviets information about the forthcoming invasion. That same year, he published the resistance magazine, Die innere Front ("The Inner Front"). At about the same time, he received information from Rudolf von Scheliha about the Final Solution.

In 1941, through a Soviet Military blunder, addresses of members of the group were transmitted across Europe in an attempt by the Soviets to re-connect with the resisters. A year later, in July 1942, the Decryption Department of the Oberkommando des Heeres managed to decode the group's radio messages, and the Gestapo pounced. On 7 September, Arvid and Mildred Harnack were arrested. Arvid Harnack was sentenced to death on 19 December after a four-day trial before the Reichskriegsgericht ("Reich Military Tribunal"), and was put to death three days later at Plötzensee Prison in Berlin. Infuriated about the diversity of the group, Hitler re-instated the death by hanging for them and secretly had the meat hooks installed at Plötzensee, which became publicly known only 2 1/2 years later during the July 20th executions. Harnack's wife Mildred was originally given six years in prison, but Hitler swiftly cancelled the sentence and ordered a new trial, which pronounced the desired death sentence. After execution, both of their bodies were released to Hermann Stieve, anatomy professor at Humboldt University, to be dissected for research. An honorary grave was installed for them after the war by Arvid's brother Falk Harnack, a member of the White Rose resistance group, at Zehlendorf Cemetery, the location of their remains is unknown.

Clark Terry

Clark Virgil Terry Jr. was an American swing and bebop trumpeter, a pioneer of the flugelhorn in jazz, composer, educator, and NEA Jazz Masters inductee.

He played with Charlie Barnet (1947), Count Basie (1948–51), Duke Ellington (1951–59), Quincy Jones (1960), and Oscar Peterson (1964-96). He was also with The Tonight Show Band from 1962 to 1972. Terry's career in jazz spanned more than 70 years, during which he became one of the most recorded jazz musicians ever, appearing on over 900 recordings. Terry also mentored many musicians including Quincy Jones, Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock, Wynton Marsalis, Pat Metheny, Dianne Reeves, and Terri Lyne Carrington among thousands of others.

He died on February 21, 2015.


Osunlade is an American-born musician and music producer.

Osunlade was born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri. He composed music for Sesame Street during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Afterward, he moved to Los Angeles, California, where he worked with artists such as Patti Labelle and Freddie Jackson. After a stint there, he moved to New York, where he founded Yoruba Records because of The continued need to create the music i wanted. To date he has worked with such artists as Roy Ayers, Nkemdi, Salif Keita, and Cesária Évora. In 2006, he released an album titled Aquarian Moon, in 2007, he released an album titled Elements Beyond on the revived Strictly Rhythm Records, and, in 2009, he released the album Passage. He is a priest of the Yoruba religion of Ifá. Because of his beliefs, Osunlade's music has a deep spiritual root in Yoruba traditions that are also reflected in the name of his record label, album covers, and also the titles of some of the tracks he has remixed such as "Obatala y Oduduwa" and "Yemeya."

Anton Lembede

Anton Lembede was a South African activist and founding president of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL). He has been described as "the principal architect of South Africa's first full-fledged ideology of African nationalism." Lembede had a strong influence on Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu and Oliver Tambo and worked with them to reform the ANC, which the Youth League described as "a body of gentlemen with clean hands". He never saw the success of Black activism that enabled Black South Africans to be treated equally; he died in 1947, aged 33.

Mance Lipscomb

Mance Lipscomb was an American blues singer, guitarist and songster.

He was born Beau De Glen Lipscomb near Navasota, Texas on April 9, 1895. His father was an ex-slave from Alabama; his mother was half Native American (Choctaw). Lipscomb spent most of his life working as a tenant farmer in Texas. As a youth he took the name Mance short for emancipation from a friend of his oldest brother, Charlie.

He was discovered and recorded by Mack McCormick and Chris Strachwitz in 1960, during revival of interest in the country blues. He recorded many albums of blues, ragtime, Tin Pan Alley and folk music (most of them released by Strachwitz's Arhoolie Records), singing and accompanying himself on acoustic guitar. Lipscomb had a "dead-thumb" finger-picking guitar technique and an expressive voice. He honed his skills by playing in nearby Brenham, Texas, with a blind musician, Sam Rogers. His first release was the album Texas Songster (1960). Lipscomb performed songs in a wide range of genres, from old songs like "Sugar Babe" (the first he ever learned) to pop numbers like "Shine On, Harvest Moon" and "It's a Long Way to Tipperary." In 1961 he recorded the album Trouble in Mind, released by Reprise Records. In May 1963, he appeared at the first Monterey Folk Festival, in California.

Unlike many of his contemporaries, he did not record in the early blues era, but his life is well documented thanks to his autobiography, I Say Me for a Parable: The Oral Autobiography of Mance Lipscomb, Texas Bluesman, narrated to Glen Alyn (published posthumously), and also a short 1971 documentary film by Les Blank, A Well Spent Life. He began playing the guitar at an early age and played regularly for years at local gatherings, mostly what he called "Saturday night suppers" hosted by someone in the area. He and his wife regularly hosted such gatherings for a while. Most of his musical activity took place within what he called his "precinct", the area around Navasota, until around 1960. Following his discovery by McCormick and Strachwitz, Lipscomb became an important figure in the American folk music revival of the 1960s. He was a regular performer at folk festivals and folk-blues clubs around the United States, notably the Ash Grove in Los Angeles, California.

He died in Navasota in 1976, two years after suffering a stroke.

Kenny Clarke

Kenneth Spearman Clarke nicknamed "Klook" and later known as Liaquat Ali Salaam, was a jazz drummer and bandleader.

He was a major innovator of the bebop style of drumming. As the house drummer at Minton's Playhouse in the early 1940s, he participated in the after hours jams that led to the birth of bebop, which in turn led to modern jazz. While in New York City, he played with the major innovators of the emerging bop style, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk, Curly Russell and others, as well as musicians of the prior generation, including Sidney Bechet. He spent his later life in Paris.

Jean-Pierre Leloir

Jean-Pierre Leloir was a French photographer who covered the music and theater scene since the 1950s, including: music concerts and rehearsals, industry reports, historical exhibitions, plays.

He was the favorite photographer of Jacques Brel and the author of the famous snapshot of Brel , Brassens and Ferré in January 1969 . He also participated, as a photographer, in the adventure of Jean Vilar's TNP and was one of the founding members of the magazine Rock & Folk .

He had also been closely associated with the adventure of the French record company Erato, of which he had been the official photographer for over thirty years. It was during this period that he photographed in rehearsal and in concert the greatest classical music artists of the time, and among others: Maurice André , Jean Pierre Rampal , Jean-François Paillard , Marie-Claire Alain .

F.R. Cristiani

François-René Cristiani is a French journalist and author.

After being a journalist in the music press, François-René Cristiani turned to general information. He was for a long time Secretary-General of the French Language Public Radio Community (Radio France, French-speaking Belgian Radio Television, Radio Canada and Radio Suisse Romande), before taking charge of France Culture's political service. François-René Cristiani is the author, in collaboration with Jean-Pierre Leloir, of Brel, Brassens, Ferré: Three men in a salon (Fayard / Chorus, 2003)

Mordechai Meirovitz

Mordechai Meirovitz was an Israeli telecommunications expert.

Meirovitz invented the code-breaking board game Master Mind. After being rejected by leading games companies, he sparked the interest of a Leicester-based company, Invicta Plastics, which restyled and renamed the game.

Released in 1971, the game sold over 50 million sets in 80 countries, making it the most successful new game of the 1970s.

Louis Guilloux

Louis Guilloux was a French writer born in Saint-Brieuc, Brittany, where he lived throughout his life. He is known for his Social Realist novels describing working class life and political struggles in the mid-twentieth century. His best-known book is Le Sang noir (Blood Dark), which has been described as a "prefiguration of Sartre's La Nausée."

Seymour Chwast

Seymour Chwast is an American graphic designer, illustrator, and type designer.

Chwast was born in Bronx, New York, and graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts from Cooper Union in 1951. With Milton Glaser, Edward Sorel, and Reynold Ruffins, he founded Push Pin Studios in 1954. The bi-monthly publication The Push Pin Graphic was a product of their collaboration. Chwast is famous for his commercial artwork, which includes posters, food packaging, magazine covers, and publicity art. Often referred to as "the left-handed designer," Chwast's unique graphic design melded social commentary and a distinctive style of illustration. Today, he continues to work and is principal at The Pushpin Group, Inc. in New York City.

In 1979, he was hired by McDonald's to design on the first box for their Happy Meals. He is the font designer of Chwast Buffalo, Fofucha, Loose Caboose NF, and Weedy Beasties NF. He is a member of Alliance Graphique International (AGI).

William Addison Dwiggins

William Addison Dwiggins was an American type designer, calligrapher, and book designer.

Dwiggins attained prominence as an illustrator and commercial artist, and he brought to the designing of type and books some of the boldness that he displayed in his advertising work. His work can be described as ornamented and geometric, similar to the Art Moderne and Art Deco styles of the period, using Oriental influences and breaking from the more antiquarian styles of his colleagues and mentors Updike, Cleland and Goudy.

Frank A. Vanderlip

Frank Arthur Vanderlip Sr. was an American banker and journalist. He was president of the National City Bank of New York (now Citibank) from 1909 to 1919, and Assistant Secretary of the Treasury from 1897 to 1901. Vanderlip is known for his part in founding the Federal Reserve System and for founding the first Montessori school in the United States, the Scarborough School and the group of communities in Palos Verdes, California.

Born in rural Illinois, Vanderlip worked in farms and factories until beginning a career in journalism in 1885. His efforts in financial journalism led him to become Assistant Secretary of the Treasury until the National City Bank hired him. While president of the bank, Vanderlip worked with the Jekyll Island group to develop a federal reserve; Vanderlip's later proposals also influenced the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913. His later life was focused towards developing Palos Verdes and creating the Scarborough School at his estate, Beechwood, in Briarcliff Manor, New York, as well as gentrifying the hamlet of Sparta nearby. In addition, he helped found and was the first president of Sleepy Hollow Country Club. Vanderlip died in 1937 in New York Hospital, after weeks of treatment there.

Hal Foster

Harold Rudolf Foster (August 16, 1892 – July 25, 1982), better known as Hal Foster, was a Canadian-American comic book artist and writer best known as the creator of the comic strip Prince Valiant. His drawing style is noted for a high level of draftsmanship and attention to detail.

Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Foster was a staff artist for the Hudson's Bay Company in Winnipeg and rode his bike to Chicago in 1919 where he studied at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts and soon found illustration assignments. The illustrator J. C. Leyendecker was an early influence on Foster.

Foster's Tarzan comic strip, adapted from Edgar Rice Burroughs's novels, began October 20, 1928. Foster returned to do the Tarzan Sunday strip beginning September 27, 1931, continuing until Burne Hogarth took over the Sunday Tarzan on May 9, 1937. He soon grew tired of working on an adaptation and began planning his own creation.

William Randolph Hearst, who had long wanted Foster to do a comic strip for his newspapers, was so impressed with Foster's pitch for Prince Valiant that he promised Foster a 50-50 split of the gross income on the strip, a very rare offer in those days. Prince Valiant premiered on February 13, 1937, continuing for decades. In 1944, Foster and his wife Helen moved from Topeka to Redding Ridge, Connecticut. In 1954, the couple was seen on television's This Is Your Life. In 1971, the Fosters retired to Spring Hill, Florida. In 1967, Woody Gelman revived some of Foster's earlier work for his Nostalgia Press.

In 1970, Foster was suffering from arthritis and began planning his retirement. He had several artists draw Sunday pages before choosing John Cullen Murphy as his collaborator and permanent replacement in 1971. Murphy drew the strip from Foster scripts and pencil sketches. Foster stopped illustrating (and signing) the Prince Valiant pages in 1975. For several years, he continued writing the strip and doing fairly detailed layouts for Murphy, eventually doing less and less of both the writing and art until prolonged anesthesia during an operation took his memory and he no longer remembered ever doing Prince Valiant. Foster attended the Comic Art Convention in 1969, and the OrlandoCon in 1974 and 1975. Foster was 73 when he was elected to membership in Great Britain's Royal Society of Arts, an honor given to very few Americans.

Foster died in Spring Hill in 1982.

George Arion

George Arion is a Romanian crime writer. He is also a poet, essayist, librettist and journalist. He is the Chairman of the Flacăra Publications, Chairman of the "Flacăra Prizes" foundation and Chairman of the Romanian Crime Writers’ Club.

His literary debut came in 1966 with the publishing of a collection of poems. But it is in 1983 that his novel-writing carrier really starts, with the publishing of Attack in the Library. Thanks to his first novel, George Arion quickly became known as the initiator of a renewal of the Romanian crime novel. He effectively gave a new impulse to the genre by having a refreshing foundation. He raised the literary standards and moved them away from their mostly propagandist use at the time.

George Arion stands out through an alert rhythm, short phrases, the use of colored language by his characters, a good dose of humour and an extraordinary irony, which are still his trademark. One can recognise the influences of Raymond Chandler, Boileau-Narcejac, San Antonio.

Louis Brauquier

Louis Brauquier was a French writer, poet and painter. His poetry is turned entirely towards the maritime world.

Fazle Haq

Lieutenant General Fazle Haq was a high-ranking general in the Pakistan Army, and the former martial law administrator (MLA) of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. He was the "Corps-Commander" of the XI Corps, and commanded all the Pakistan Army assets assigned in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province. He commanded the combatant brigades, and supervised the clandestine covert network during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. He was one of the leading generals who led the Pakistan Combatant Forces during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. As military administrator, he had set up a network of training of the Afghan Mujahideen. Under his command, the elements of Pakistan's administrative XI Corps participated in numerous operations against the Soviet Union.

Born on September 10, 1928, in Mardan, Fazle Haq had two sisters and three brothers. His father, Pir Fazle Khaliq, served as a civil servant. His eldest brother was Major General Fazl-i- Raziq who was chairman of WAPDA and Pakistan ambassador to several countries. His other brothers were Pir Fazle Hussain and Pir Fazle Rehman. None of his siblings are alive. He has a daughter and three sons. Two of his sons are doctors, Dr. Arshad Khan, Dermatologist and Dr. Adnan Khan, Professor of Neurology while the youngest son, Asif Khan is a civil engineer. His daughter is married to Col. Javed Noor. Fazle Haq studied in Mardan up to Grade 3 and pursued his education up to class 8 in Kohat from 1935 to 1939. He then joined Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College, Dehradun, for further education.

As an army officer, Fazle Haq was commissioned in the Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force) regiment of the Armoured Corps. He was instructor at Pakistan Military Academy in 1953–54 at the rank of captain. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, then Major Fazle Haq was part of the Guides Cavalry in the 6th Armoured Division, when the regiment launched a two-squadron attack at Phillaurah on September 11. The attack was targeted against the Indian 1st Armoured Division, and as a result both sides faced heavy casualties. This was presumed a Pakistani victory, as the fighting did not resume until September 13, as the enemy was more cautious. However, it was a Pyrrhic victory.

As a lieutenant-colonel, Fazle Haq commanded his own regiment, the Guides Cavalry, during 1968 and 1969. Then by 1975, as a major general, he took over the 6th Armoured Division stationed at Kharian. Now promoted to lieutenant general, Haq was the commander of XI Corps at Peshawar from January 1978 to March 1980. By this time, General Zia-ul-Haq had imposed a martial law in the country, and Fazle Haq was concurrently appointed the Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. After retirement from the army in 1980, he stayed on as the governor, finally relinquishing the charge in December 1985 when the martial law was lifted in the country. During his time as governor and corps commander, he was considered one of President Zia-ul Haq's closest confidantes and a key architect of the Afghan mujahidin groups. He was actively involved with Afghan mujahidin groups, including the Haqqani group and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar till the end of the Soviet-Afghan war and often met with high-ranking CIA and government officials, including Attorney General of the United States William F. Smith and other political key figures for funding and support for the Afghan Freedom. He remains to this day well respected and well known among the people of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa for services rendered during his tenure as governor.

He was chief military administrator “governor” of the province from October 1978 to December 1985. He remained senator from March 1988 to December 1988, member of the National Assembly from November 1988 to August 1990. He also served as caretaker chief minister of the province from May 31, 1988, until December 2, 1988. He was the provincial president of Pakistan Muslim League as well. He contested and lost the 1988 general elections from his home town of Mardan; however, he won from Kohistan. In the next elections, he won from Malakand with an overwhelming majority and remained a member of the NWFP provincial assembly until his assassination in 1991. He also remained as caretaker chief minister of NWFP.

On October 3, 1991, he was assassinated on his way home from the provincial assembly session by an unknown assailants. He was buried in Peshawar at the Cantonment Board graveyard on Warsak road.

Gilles Grangier

Gilles Grangier was a French film director and screenwriter. He directed 55 films and several TV series between 1943 and 1985. His film Archimède le clochard was entered into the 9th Berlin International Film Festival, where Jean Gabin won the Silver Bear for Best Actor.

Christian Jambet

Christian Jambet is a French philosopher and Islamologist.

Cudjoe Lewis

Cudjo Kazoola Lewis, was the last known survivor of the Atlantic slave trade between Africa and the United States. Together with 115 other captives, he was brought illegally to the United States on board the ship Clotilde in 1860. They were landed in the backwaters near Mobile, Alabama and hidden from authorities. The ship was scuttled to evade discovery.

After the Civil War, Lewis and other members of the Clotilde group became free and established a community at Magazine Point, north of Mobile, Alabama.

George Finch

George Ingle Finch was an Australian chemist, mountaineer and the first known human to climb reaching a height exceeding 8,000 meters.

He was born in Australia but educated in German-speaking Switzerland and studied physical sciences at University of Geneva. During the First World War, he served with the Royal Army Ordnance Corps. He was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 1918 New Year Honours for services in connection with the War in France, Egypt and Salonika.

A member of the second British expedition under General Charles Granville Bruce to Mount Everest, on 23 May 1922 Finch and Captain Geoffrey Bruce reached an elevation of 27,300 feet (8,321 m) on the north ridge before retreating. Finch fell out with the Everest Committee after 1922, but his pioneering work on oxygen, which he pursued with messianic zeal, remained crucial to future expeditions. In the Alps, Finch was on the first ascent of the North Face Diagonal or "Finch Route" on the Dent d'Hérens, which he climbed with T. G. B. Forster and R. Peto on 2 August 1923. Finch was also a keen skier and was a founding members of the Alpine Ski Club in 1908. He was a lifelong advocate and supporter of the Alpine Club and would later become its president.

Between 1936 and 1952 he held the position of Professor of Applied Physical Chemistry at Imperial College London. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1938. Finch was awarded their Hughes Medal in 1944. He was president of the Physical Society from 1947 to 1949.

Guy Bullock

Guy Henry Bullock was a British diplomat who is best known for his participation in the 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition. As expedition mountaineers, he and George Mallory found a northern access route to Everest by climbing the 6,849-metre (22,470 ft) Lhakpa La col above the East Rongbuk Glacier and by going on to reach the North Col at 7,020 metres (23,030 ft). They did not, however, reach the summit of Mount Everest.

George Mallory

George Herbert Leigh Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest, in the early 1920s.

During the 1924 British Mount Everest expedition, Mallory and his climbing partner, Andrew "Sandy" Irvine, disappeared on the North-East ridge during their attempt to make the first ascent of the world's highest mountain. The pair were last seen when they were about 800 vertical feet (245 m) from the summit.

Mallory's ultimate fate was unknown for 75 years, until his body was discovered on 1 May 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers' remains. Whether Mallory and Irvine had reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation and continuing research.

David Akeman

David Akeman, known as Stringbean, was an American country music banjo player and comedy musician best known for his role on the hit television show, Hee Haw, and as a member of the Grand Ole Opry. Akeman and his wife were murdered by burglars at their rural Tennessee home in 1973.

Cy Young

Denton True "Cy" Young was an American Major League Baseball pitcher. During his 22-season baseball career (1890–1911), he pitched for five different teams. Young established numerous pitching records, some of which have stood for over a century. Young compiled 511 wins, which is most in Major League history and 94 ahead of Walter Johnson, second on the list. Young was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1937.

One year after Young's death, the Cy Young Award was created to honor the previous season's best pitcher.

In addition to wins, Young still holds the major league records for most career innings pitched (7,356), most career games started (815), and most complete games (749). He also retired with 316 losses, the most in MLB history. Young's 76 career shutouts are fourth all-time. He also won at least 30 games in a season five times, with ten other seasons of 20 or more wins. In addition, Young pitched three no-hitters, including the third perfect game in baseball history, first in baseball's "modern era". In 1999, 88 years after his final major league appearance and 44 years after his death, editors at The Sporting News ranked Young 14th on their list of "Baseball's 100 Greatest Players." That same year, baseball fans named him to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.

Young's career started in 1890 with the Cleveland Spiders. After eight years with the Spiders, Young was moved to St. Louis in 1899. After two years there, Young jumped to the newly created American League, joining the Boston franchise. He was traded back to Cleveland in 1909, before spending the final two months of his career with the Boston Rustlers. After his retirement, Young went back to his farm in Ohio, where he stayed until his death at age 88 in 1955.

J. Frank Dobie

James Frank Dobie was an American folklorist, writer, and newspaper columnist best known for his many books depicting the richness and traditions of life in rural Texas during the days of the open range. As a public figure, he was known in his lifetime for his outspoken liberal views against Texas state politics, and for his long personal war against what he saw as bragging Texans, religious prejudice, restraints on individual liberty, and the assault of the mechanized world on the human spirit. 

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff was a Russian-born French modernist painter belonging to the 'New' Ecole de Paris; Tachisme.

Serge Poliakoff was born in Moscow in 1906, the thirteenth of fourteen children. His father, a Kyrgyz, supplied the army with horses that he bred himself and also owned a racing stable. His mother was heavily involved with the church, and its religious icons fascinated him. He enrolled at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, but fled Russia in 1918. He arrived in Constantinople in 1920, living off the profits from his talent as a guitarist.

He went on to pass through Sofia, Belgrade, Vienna, and Berlin before settling in Paris in 1923, all the while continuing to play in Russian cabarets. In 1929 he enrolled at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière. His paintings remained purely academic until he discovered, during his stay in London from 1935 to 1937, the abstract art and luminous colors of the Egyptian sarcophagi. It was a little afterwards that he met Wassily Kandinsky, Sonia and Robert Delaunay, and Otto Freundlich.

With these influences, Poliakoff quickly came to be considered as one of the most powerful painters of his generation. In 1947, he was trained by Jean Deyrolle in Gordes in the Vaucluse region of France among peers such as Gérard Schneider, Giloli, Victor Vasarely, and Jean Dewasne. By the beginning of the 1950s, he was still staying at the Old Dovecote hotel near Saint-Germain-des-Prés, which was also home to Louis Nallard and Maria Manton, and continuing to earn a reliable income by playing the balalaika. A contract enabled him to quickly gain better financial stability.

In 1962 a room was given over to his paintings by the Venice Biennial, and Poliakoff became a French citizen in the same year. His works are now displayed in a large number of museums in Europe and New York. Poliakoff also worked with ceramics at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres. He influenced the paintings of Arman.

Jean Ristat

Jean Ristat is a French poet and writer .

Jean Ristat founded the magazine collection Digraph in 1974, as suggested by his professor of philosophy, Jacques Derrida, which he then put to the recent essay on Plato's Pharmacy (see the supplement to the edition of 1974). He is currently the director of French Letters, French literary supplement of the daily L'Humanité. He is also responsible for publishing the complete writings of Aragon, for whom he is the literary executor.

Pierre Cardo

Pierre Cardo is a member of the National Assembly of France. He represents the Yvelines department, and is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement. As of 2010, he is president of Autorité de Régulation des Activités Ferroviaires.

Alphonse Juin

Alphonse Pierre Juin was a senior French Army officer who became a Marshal of France.

Juin was a graduate of the Saint-Cyr class of 1912, he served in Morocco in 1914 in command of native troops. Upon the outbreak of the First World War, he was sent to the Western Front in France, where he was gravely wounded in 1915. As a result of this wound, he lost the use of his right arm.

After the war, he attended the École Supérieure de Guerre. He chose to serve in North Africa again. After the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, he assumed command of a division, the 15e Division d'Infantrie Motorisée (fr). The division was encircled in the Lille pocket during the Battle of France and Juin was captured. He was a prisoner of war until he was released at the behest of the Vichy Government in 1941, and was assigned to command French forces in North Africa.

After Operation Torch, the invasion of Algeria and Morocco by British and American forces in November 1942, Juin ordered French forces in Tunisia to resist the Germans and the Italians. His great skills were exhibited during the Italian campaign as commander of the French Expeditionary Corps. His expertise in mountain warfare was crucial in breaking the Gustav Line, which had held up the Allied advance for six months.

Following this assignment he was Chief of Staff of French forces, and represented France at the San Francisco Conference. In 1947 he returned to Africa as the Resident General in Morocco, where he opposed Moroccan attempts to gain independence. Next came a senior NATO position as he assumed command of CENTAG until 1956. During his NATO command, he was promoted to Marshal of France in 1952. He was greatly opposed to Charles De Gaulle's decision to grant independence to Algeria, and was "retired" in 1962 as a result. He was the French Army's last living Marshal of France until his death in Paris in 1967, when he was buried in Les Invalides.