30 March, 2012

Anatole France

Anatole France (pronounced: [anatɔl fʁɑ̃s]) (16 April 1844 – 12 October 1924), bornFrançois-Anatole Thibault,[1] [frɑ̃swa anatɔl tibo], was a French poet, journalist, and novelist. He was born in Paris, and died in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire. He was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers. Ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. He was a member of the Académie française, and won theNobel Prize for Literature in recognition of his literary achievements.


France is also widely believed[2] to be the model for narrator Marcel's literary idol Bergotte in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. 


Early life


The son of a bookseller, France spent most of his life around books. His father's bookstore, called the Librairie France, specialized in books and papers on the French Revolution and was frequented by many notable writers and scholars of the day.[1] Anatole France studied at the Collège Stanislas, a private Catholic school, and after graduation he helped his father by working in his bookstore. After several years he secured the position of cataloguer at Bacheline-Deflorenne and at Lemerre. In 1876 he was appointed librarian for the French Senate.


Literary career


Anatole France began his career as a poet and a journalist. In 1869, Le Parnasse Contemporain published one of his poems, La Part de Madeleine. In 1875, he sat on the committee which was in charge of the third Parnasse Contemporain compilation. As a journalist, from 1867, he wrote a lot of articles and notices. He became famous with the novel Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (1881). Its protagonist, skeptical old scholar Sylvester Bonnard, embodied France's own personality. The novel was praised for its elegant prose and won him a prize from the French Academy. In La Rotisserie de la Reine Pedauque (1893) Anatole France ridiculed belief in the occult; and in Les Opinions de Jerome Coignard (1893), France captured the atmosphere of the fin de siècle.


He was elected to the Académie française in 1896.


France took an important part in the Dreyfus Affair. He signed Emile Zola's manifesto supporting Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer who had been falsely convicted of espionage. France wrote about the affair in his 1901 novel Monsieur Bergeret.
France's later works include L'Île des Pingouins (1908) which satirizes human nature by depicting the transformation of penguins into humans - after the animals have been baptized in error by the nearsighted Abbot Mael. La Revolte des Anges (1914) is often considered France's most profound novel. It tells the story of Arcade, the guardian angel of Maurice d'Esparvieu. Arcade falls in love, joins the revolutionary movement of angels, and towards the end realizes that the overthrow of God is meaningless unless "in ourselves and in ourselves alone we attack and destroy Ialdabaoth."


He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921. He died in 1924 and is buried in the Neuilly-sur-Seine community cemetery near Paris.


On 31 May 1922, France's entire works were put on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (Prohibited Books Index) of the Roman Catholic Church.[3] He regarded this as a "distinction".[4] This Index was abolished in 1966.


Bibliography


Poetry


Les Légions de Varus, poem published in 1867 in the Gazette rimée.
Poèmes dorés (1873)
Les Noces corinthiennes (The Bride of Corinth) (1876)


Prose fiction


Jocaste et Le Chat maigre (Jocasta and the Famished Cat) (1879)
Le Crime de Sylvestre Bonnard (The Crime of Sylvestre Bonnard) (1881)
Les Désirs de Jean Servien (The Aspirations of Jean Servien) (1882)
Abeille (Honey-Bee) (1883)
Balthasar (1889)
Thaïs (1890)
L’Étui de nacre (Mother of Pearl) (1892)
La Rôtisserie de la reine Pédauque (At the Sign of the Reine Pédauque) (1892)
Les Opinions de Jérôme Coignard (The Opinions of Jerome Coignard) (1893)
Le Lys rouge (The Red Lily) (1894)
Le Puits de Sainte Claire (The Well of Saint Clare) (1895)
L’Histoire contemporaine (A Chronicle of Our Own Times)
1: L’Orme du mail (The Elm-Tree on the Mall)(1897)
2: Le Mannequin d'osier (The Wicker-Work Woman) (1897)
3: L’Anneau d'améthyste (The Amethyst Ring) (1899)
4: Monsieur Bergeret à Paris (Monsieur Bergeret in Paris) (1901)
Clio (1900)
Histoire comique (A Mummer's Tale) (1903)
Sur la pierre blanche (The White Stone) (1905)
L'Affaire Crainquebille (1901)
L’Île des Pingouins (Penguin Island) (1908)
Les Contes de Jacques Tournebroche (The Merrie Tales of Jacques Tournebroche) (1908)
Les Sept Femmes de Barbe bleue et autres contes merveilleux (The Seven Wives Of Bluebeard and Other Marvellous Tales) (1909)
Les dieux ont soif (The Gods Are Athirst) (1912)
La Révolte des anges (The Revolt of the Angels) (1914)


Memoirs


Le Livre de mon ami (My Friend's Book) (1885)
Pierre Nozière (1899)
Le Petit Pierre (Little Pierre) (1918)
La Vie en fleur (The Bloom of Life) (1922)


Plays


Au petit bonheur (1898)
Crainquebille (1903)
La Comédie de celui qui épousa une femme muette (The Man Who Married A Dumb Wife) (1908)
Le Mannequin d'osier (The Wicker Woman) (1928)


Historical biography


Vie de Jeanne d'Arc (The Life of Joan of Arc) (1908)


Literary criticism

Alfred de Vigny (1869)

Le Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte (1888)
Le Génie Latin (1913)


Social criticism


Le Jardin d’Épicure (The Garden of Epicurus) (1895)
Opinions sociales (1902)
Le Parti noir (1904)
Vers les temps meilleurs (1906)
Sur la voie glorieuse (1915)
Trente ans de vie sociale, in four volumes, (1949, 1953, 1964, 1973)


Notes


1. ^ a b w:fr:Anatole France
2. ^ "Marcel Proust: A Life, by Edmund White,".
3. ^ Halsall, Paul (May l, 1998). "Modern History Sourcebook: Index librorum prohibitorum, 1557–1966 (Index of Prohibited Books)".Internet History Sourcebooks Project (Fordham University).
4. ^ Current Opinion, September 1922, p.295.

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